Observations from a submerged GNSS antenna underneath a snowpack need to be analyzed to investigate its potential for snowpack characterization. The magnitude of the main interaction processes involved in the GPS L1 signal propagation through different layers of snow, ice, or freshwater is examined theoretically in the present paper. For this purpose, the GPS signal penetration...

Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and NavIC are emerging global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) and regional navigation satellite systems all of which are equipped with laser retroreflector arrays for range measurements. This paper summarizes the GNSS-intensive tracking campaigns conducted by the International Laser Ranging Service and provides results from multi-GNSS orbit...

GNSS antennas have no fixed electrical reference point. The variation of the phase centre is modelled and tabulated in antenna calibration tables, which include the offset vector (PCO) and phase centre variation (PCV) for each frequency according to the elevations and azimuths of the incoming signal. Used together, PCV and PCO reduce the phase observations to the antenna...

Missing or incorrect consideration of azimuthal asymmetry of troposphere delays is a considerable error source in space geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) or Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). So-called horizontal troposphere gradients are generally utilized for modeling such azimuthal variations and are particularly required for...

Time-varying Stokes coefficients estimated from GRACE satellite data are routinely converted into mass anomalies at the Earth’s surface with the expression proposed for that purpose by Wahr et al. (J Geophys Res 103(B12):30,205–30,229, 1998). However, the results obtained with it represent mass transport at the spherical surface of 6378 km radius. We show that the accuracy of...

The frequency stability and uncertainty of the latest generation of optical atomic clocks is now approaching the one part in \(10^{18}\) level. Comparisons between earthbound clocks at rest must account for the relativistic redshift of the clock frequencies, which is proportional to the corresponding gravity (gravitational plus centrifugal) potential difference. For contributions...

A method for validating the calibration parameters of the six accelerometers on board the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) from star tracker observations that was originally tested by an end-to-end simulation, has been updated and applied to real data from GOCE. It is shown that the method provides estimates of scale factors for all three axes of...

This paper focuses on the investigation of the deterministic and stochastic parts of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) weekly time series aligned to the newest release of ITRF2014. A set of 90 stations was divided into three groups depending on when the data were collected at an individual station. To reliably describe the DORIS time...

The paper is about a methodology to combine a noisy satellite-only global gravity field model (GGM) with other noisy datasets to estimate a local quasi-geoid model using weighted least-squares techniques. In this way, we attempt to improve the quality of the estimated quasi-geoid model and to complement it with a full noise covariance matrix for quality control and further data...

We perform extensive simulations in order to assess the accuracy with which the position of a radio transmitter on the surface of the Moon can be determined by geodetic VLBI. We study how the quality and quantity of geodetic VLBI observations influence these position estimates and investigate how observations of such near-field objects affect classical geodetic parameters like...

Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better...

A global measure of observation correlations in a network is proposed, together with the auxiliary indices related to non-diagonal elements of the correlation matrix. Based on the above global measure, a specific representation of the correlation matrix is presented, being the result of rigorously proven theorem formulated within the present research. According to the theorem...

Incorrect modeling of troposphere delays is one of the major error sources for space geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) or Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Over the years, many approaches have been devised which aim at mapping the delay of radio waves from zenith direction down to the observed elevation angle, so-called mapping...

We present an improved mascon approach to transform monthly spherical harmonic solutions based on GRACE satellite data into mass anomaly estimates in Greenland. The GRACE-based spherical harmonic coefficients are used to synthesize gravity anomalies at satellite altitude, which are then inverted into mass anomalies per mascon. The limited spectral content of the gravity anomalies...

We describe the computation of the first Australian quasigeoid model to include error estimates as a function of location that have been propagated from uncertainties in the EGM2008 global model, land and altimeter-derived gravity anomalies and terrain corrections. The model has been extended to include Australia’s offshore territories and maritime boundaries using newer datasets...

The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR...

The DIA method for the detection, identification and adaptation of model misspecifications combines estimation with testing. The aim of the present contribution is to introduce a unifying framework for the rigorous capture of this combination. By using a canonical model formulation and a partitioning of misclosure space, we show that the whole estimation–testing scheme can be...

The GOCE gravity gradiometer measured highly accurate gravity gradients along the orbit during GOCE’s mission lifetime from March 17, 2009, to November 11, 2013. These measurements contain unique information on the gravity field at a spatial resolution of 80 km half wavelength, which is not provided to the same accuracy level by any other satellite mission now and in the...

Continental hydrological loading by land water, snow and ice is a process that is important for the full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study, we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (as hydrological angular momentum, HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of...

This work is an investigation of three methods for regional geoid computation: Stokes’s formula, least-squares collocation (LSC), and spherical radial base functions (RBFs) using the spline kernel (SK). It is a first attempt to compare the three methods theoretically and numerically in a unified framework. While Stokes integration and LSC may be regarded as classic methods for...

The GNSS Occultation Sounder instrument onboard the Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) tracks both GPS and BDS signals for orbit determination. One month’s worth of the onboard dual-frequency GPS and BDS data during March 2015 from the FY-3C satellite is analyzed in this study. The onboard BDS and GPS measurement quality is evaluated in terms of data quantity as...

The existence of intra-plate deformation of the Sundaland platelet along its eastern edge in North Borneo, South-East Asia, makes it an interesting area that still is relatively understudied. In addition, the motion of the coastal area of North-West Borneo is directed toward a frontal fold-and-thrust belt and has been fueling a long debate on the possible geophysical sources...

GPS code pseudorange measurements exhibit group delay variations at the transmitting and the receiving antenna. We calibrated C1 and P2 delay variations with respect to dual-frequency carrier phase observations and obtained nadir-dependent corrections for 32 satellites of the GPS constellation in early 2015 as well as elevation-dependent corrections for 13 receiving antenna...