Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,007)

Cardiovascular risk in patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare inherited condition caused by mutations of the SERPINA1 gene that is associated with the development of a COPD like lung disease. The comorbidities in patients with AATD-related lung diseases are not well defined. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical phenotype of AATD patients within the German COPD cohort study COSYCONET ...

Anti-fibrotic efficacy of nintedanib in pulmonary fibrosis via the inhibition of fibrocyte activity

Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is specific for platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR), has recently been approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that produce growth factors and contribute to fibrogenesis ...

Structure and functional impact of seed region variant in MIR-499 gene family in bronchial asthma

Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) have been evolved to master numerous cellular processes. Genetic variants within microRNA seed region might influence microRNA biogenesis and function. The study aimed at determining the role of microRNA-499 (MIR-499) gene family polymorphism as a marker for susceptibility and progression of bronchial asthma and to analyze the structural and ...

Increased activated regulatory T cells proportion correlate with the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial in maintaining immune tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unclear. This study was designed to explore the role of Tregs in IPF. Percentages of Tregs and their subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were determined by flow cytometry in 29 patients ...

Intersectin-1s deficiency in pulmonary pathogenesis

Intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s), a multidomain adaptor protein, plays a vital role in endocytosis, cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated that deficiency of ITSN-1s is a crucial early event in pulmonary pathogenesis. In lung cancer, ITSN-1s deficiency impairs Eps8 ubiquitination and favors Eps8-mSos1 interaction which activates Rac1 leading to ...

WNT signaling – lung cancer is no exception

Since the initial discovery of the oncogenic activity of WNT ligands our understanding of the complex roles for WNT signaling pathways in lung cancers has increased substantially. In the current review, the various effects of activation and inhibition of the WNT signaling pathways are summarized in the context of lung carcinogenesis. Recent evidence regarding WNT ligand transport ...

RIG-I overexpression decreases mortality of cigarette smoke exposed mice during influenza A virus infection

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under ...

Comparing accelerometer, pedometer and a questionnaire for measuring physical activity in bronchiectasis: a validity and feasibility study?

Background There are challenges for researchers and clinicians to select the most appropriate physical activity tool, and a balance between precision and feasibility is needed. Currently it is unclear which physical activity tool should be used to assess physical activity in Bronchiectasis. The aim of this research is to compare assessment methods (pedometer and IPAQ) to our ...

Transfer factor for carbon monoxide in patients with COPD and diabetes: results from the German COSYCONET cohort

Background An impairment of CO diffusing capacity has been shown in diabetic patients without lung disease. We analyzed how diffusing capacity in patients with COPD is affected by the concurrent diagnosis of diabetes. Methods Data from the initial visit of the German COPD cohort COSYCONET were used for analysis. 2575 patients with complete lung function data were included, among ...

Regulatory T cells and IL10 suppress pulmonary host defense during early-life exposure to radical containing combustion derived ultrafine particulate matter

Background Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory ...

Indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol on body plethysmography measurements in COPD—a randomised controlled study

Background Dual bronchodilator therapy is recommended for symptomatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited data on effects of a combination of two long-acting bronchodilators on lung function including body plethysmography. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, single-dose, cross-over, placebo-controlled study evaluated ...

End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern: an immunohistochemical analysis

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by vigorous airway inflammation eventually resulting in severe lung damage. This study aimed to describe the diversity of the inflammatory pattern in end-stage CF lungs by evaluating and quantifying which components of the innate and adaptive immunity are involved, and by assessing whether this is gender-specific. ...

Whole Transcriptome Analysis of Pre-invasive and Invasive Early Squamous Lung Carcinoma in Archival Laser Microdissected Samples

Background Preinvasive squamous cell cancer (PSCC) are local transformations of bronchial epithelia that are frequently observed in current or former smokers. Their different grades and sizes suggest a continuum of dysplastic change with increasing severity, which may culminate in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC). As a consequence of the difficulty in isolating cancerous ...

No convincing association between genetic markers and respiratory symptoms: results of a GWA study

Background Respiratory symptoms are associated with accelerated lung function decline, and increased hospitalization and mortality rates in the general population. Although several environmental risk factors for respiratory symptoms are known, knowledge on genetic risk factors is lacking. We aim to identify genetic variants associated with respiratory symptoms by genome-wide ...

Non-linear parameters of specific resistance loops to characterise obstructive airways diseases

Background Specific resistance loops appear in different shapes influenced by different resistive properties of the airways, yet their descriptive ability is compressed to a single parameter - its slope. We aimed to develop new parameters reflecting the various shapes of the loop and to explore their potential in the characterisation of obstructive airways diseases. Methods Our ...

A randomized, seven-day study to assess the efficacy and safety of a glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler using novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background Long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β 2 -agonist combinations are recommended for patients whose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not managed with monotherapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate (GP)/formoterol fumarate (FF) fixed-dose combination delivered via a Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology-based metered dose inhaler ...

Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA and mRNA Regulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, irreversible chronic inflammatory disorder typified by increased recruitment of monocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Because of this, as well as the convenience of peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) assessments, miRNA profiling of PBMCs has drawn increasing attention in recent years for various ...

Gene profile of fibroblasts identify relation of CCL8 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the complex interaction of cells involved in chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Global gene expression of a homogenous cell population will identify novel candidate genes. Methods Gene expression of fibroblasts derived from lung tissues (8 IPF and 4 controls) was profiled, and ontology and functional pathway were ...

The main rhinovirus respiratory tract adhesion site (ICAM-1) is upregulated in smokers and patients with chronic airflow limitation (CAL)

Background ICAM-1 is a major receptor for ~60% of human rhinoviruses, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, two major pathogens in COPD. Increased cell-surface expression of ICAM-1 in response to tobacco smoke exposure has been suggested. We have investigated epithelial ICAM-1 expression in both the large and small airways, and lung parenchyma in smoking-related chronic airflow ...

Cigarette smoke destabilizes NLRP3 protein by promoting its ubiquitination

Background Cigarette smoke suppresses innate immunity, making smokers more susceptible to infection. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that releases interleukin (IL) -1β and IL -18. These cytokines are critical for a timely host response to pathogens. Whether cigarette smoke affects NLRP3 protein levels, and its ability to form an inflammasome, is not known. Methods ...

Effect of active vitamin D3 on VEGF-induced ADAM33 expression and proliferation in human airway smooth muscle cells: implications for asthma treatment

Background Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthma. Recent evidence indicates that a ...

Eligibility of real-life patients with COPD for inclusion in RCTs: a commentary

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are performed to provide evidence to support treatment decisions. Based on the nature of those studies and the need to avoid confounding factors, it has been argued that the population selected in RCTs only partially represents the real-life population. This assumption casts doubts on the applicability of the results provided by RCTs in the ...

Atrial natriuretic peptide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via vascular endothelial cells in mice: ANP for pulmonary fibrosis

Background Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive dyspnea and worsening pulmonary function. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a heart-derived secretory peptide used clinically in Japan for the treatment of acute heart failure, exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and lungs. ...

Evidence for harm reduction in COPD smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes

Background Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. There is a lack of data on the health effects of EC use among smokers with COPD and whether regular use results in improvement in subjective and objective COPD outcomes. We investigated long-term changes in ...

Validated and longitudinally stable asthma phenotypes based on cluster analysis of the ADEPT study

Background Asthma is a disease of varying severity and differing disease mechanisms. To date, studies aimed at stratifying asthma into clinically useful phenotypes have produced a number of phenotypes that have yet to be assessed for stability and to be validated in independent cohorts. The aim of this study was to define and validate, for the first time ever, clinically driven ...