Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Virus-triggered exacerbation in allergic asthmatic children: neutrophilic airway inflammation and alteration of virus sensors characterize a subgroup of patients

Viruses are important triggers of asthma exacerbations. They are also detected outside of exacerbation. Alteration of anti-viral response in asthmatic patients has been shown although the mechanisms responsible for this defect remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare in virus-infected and not-infected allergic asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, admitted to...

RNA-sequencing analysis of lung primary fibroblast response to eosinophil-degranulation products predicts downstream effects on inflammation, tissue remodeling and lipid metabolism

The association of eosinophils with inflammation and tissue remodeling is at least partially due to their release of toxic granule proteins and other mediators, including cytokines. Tissue remodeling and consequent functional defects are affected by activity of connective tissue fibroblasts. Exaggerated fibroblast activation, accumulation and change of phenotype may lead to...

Changes in vasoactive pathways in congenital diaphragmatic hernia associated pulmonary hypertension explain unresponsiveness to pharmacotherapy

Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have structural and functional different pulmonary vessels, leading to pulmonary hypertension. They often fail to respond to standard vasodilator therapy targeting the major vasoactive pathways, causing a high morbidity and mortality. We analyzed whether the expression of crucial members of these vasoactive pathways could...

Endobronchial one-way valves for treatment of persistent air leaks: a systematic review

Persistent air leak (PAL) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospitalization and increased health-care costs. It can arise from a number of conditions, including pneumothorax, necrotizing infection, trauma, malignancies, procedural interventions and complications after thoracic surgery. Numerous therapeutic options, including noninvasive and...

Ghrelin therapy improves lung and cardiovascular function in experimental emphysema

Emphysema is a progressive disease characterized by irreversible airspace enlargement followed by a decline in lung function. It also causes extrapulmonary effects, such as loss of body mass and cor pulmonale, which are associated with shorter survival and worse clinical outcomes. Ghrelin, a growth-hormone secretagogue, stimulates muscle anabolism, has anti-inflammatory effects...

Prognostic and diagnostic significance of copeptin in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute heart failure: data from the ACE 2 study

Copeptin is a novel biomarker that predicts mortality in lower respiratory tract infections and heart failure (HF), but the diagnostic value of copeptin in acute dyspnea and the prognostic significance of copeptin in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is not clear. We determined copeptin and NT-proBNP concentrations at hospital admission in 314...

Asthma-COPD overlap is not a homogeneous disorder: further supporting data

Asthma-COPD ovelap (ACO) is an umbrella term that encompasses patients with COPD and eosinophilic inflammation (e-COPD) and smoking asthmatics with non-fully reversible airflow obstruction (SA). We compared the clinical characteristics and the inflammatory profile of e-COPD and SA. Patients classified as e-COPD were older and more often male and showed significantly impaired...

A 28-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of nebulized revefenacin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Revefenacin is a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) in clinical development for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a dose-ranging study, nebulized once-daily revefenacin had a long duration of action in patients after 7 days’ administration of doses up to 700 μg. In this multiple-dose study, the bronchodilation...

Neutrophil extracellular traps in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a devastating infectious disease causing many deaths worldwide. Recent investigations have implicated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the host response to tuberculosis. The aim of the current study was to obtain evidence for NETs release in the circulation during human tuberculosis. For this we measured the plasma concentrations of nucleosomes in...

Serum bilirubin and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

Bilirubin is a potent anti-oxidant and higher serum concentrations of bilirubin have been associated with better lung function, slower lung function decline, and lower incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether elevated bilirubin blood concentrations are associated with lower risk for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). We...

The value of blood cytokines and chemokines in assessing COPD

Blood biomarkers are increasingly used to stratify high risk chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients; however, there are fewer studies that have investigated multiple biomarkers and replicated in multiple large well-characterized cohorts of susceptible current and former smokers. We used two MSD multiplex panels to measure 9 cytokines and chemokines in 2123 subjects...

Development of breath test for pneumoconiosis: a case-control study

Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated from lipid peroxidation might be used to detect pneumoconiosis. The objective of this study was to develop a breath test for pneumoconiosis. A case-control study was designed. Breath and ambient air were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...

Vildagliptin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition

Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve...

Prospective comparison of non-invasive risk markers of major cardiovascular events in COPD patients

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease, one of the most frequent causes of death in COPD patients. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of non-invasive CV risk markers in COPD patients. CV risk was prospectively evaluated in 287 COPD patients using non-invasive markers including the...

Factors associated with hospitalization in bronchiectasis exacerbations: a one-year follow-up study

Bronchiectasis (BE) is a chronic structural lung disease with frequent exacerbations, some of which require hospital admission though no clear associated factors have been identified. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with hospitalization due to exacerbations during a 1-year follow-up period. A prospective observational study was performed in patients recruited from...

Roflumilast reverses CFTR-mediated ion transport dysfunction in cigarette smoke-exposed mice

Dysfunction in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be elicited by cigarette smoke and is observed in patients with chronic bronchitis. We have previously demonstrated in human airway epithelial cell monolayers that roflumilast, a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that reduces the risk of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary...

IL-4-induced caveolin-1-containing lipid rafts aggregation contributes to MUC5AC synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells

Mucus overproduction is an important feature of asthma. Interleukin (IL)-4 is required for allergen-induced airway inflammation and mucus production. MUC5AC gene expression is regulated by transcript factors NF-κB. The intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signal is required for activation of NF-κB. The transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) channel has been shown to contribute...

Cardiovascular risk in patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare inherited condition caused by mutations of the SERPINA1 gene that is associated with the development of a COPD like lung disease. The comorbidities in patients with AATD-related lung diseases are not well defined. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical phenotype of AATD patients within the German COPD cohort study...

Anti-fibrotic efficacy of nintedanib in pulmonary fibrosis via the inhibition of fibrocyte activity

Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is specific for platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR), has recently been approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that produce growth factors and contribute to...

RIG-I overexpression decreases mortality of cigarette smoke exposed mice during influenza A virus infection

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under...

Increased activated regulatory T cells proportion correlate with the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial in maintaining immune tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unclear. This study was designed to explore the role of Tregs in IPF. Percentages of Tregs and their subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were determined by flow cytometry in 29 patients...

Structure and functional impact of seed region variant in MIR-499 gene family in bronchial asthma

Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) have been evolved to master numerous cellular processes. Genetic variants within microRNA seed region might influence microRNA biogenesis and function. The study aimed at determining the role of microRNA-499 (MIR-499) gene family polymorphism as a marker for susceptibility and progression of bronchial asthma and to analyze the structural and...

Intersectin-1s deficiency in pulmonary pathogenesis

Intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s), a multidomain adaptor protein, plays a vital role in endocytosis, cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated that deficiency of ITSN-1s is a crucial early event in pulmonary pathogenesis. In lung cancer, ITSN-1s deficiency impairs Eps8 ubiquitination and favors Eps8-mSos1 interaction which activates Rac1 leading to...

WNT signaling – lung cancer is no exception

Since the initial discovery of the oncogenic activity of WNT ligands our understanding of the complex roles for WNT signaling pathways in lung cancers has increased substantially. In the current review, the various effects of activation and inhibition of the WNT signaling pathways are summarized in the context of lung carcinogenesis. Recent evidence regarding WNT ligand transport...