Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,012)

Non-neuronal cholinergic system contributes to corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

Background Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with long-acting beta-2 agonists is a well-documented combination therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on its additive anti-inflammatory properties. By contrast, the recommendation of ICS in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) is not evidence-based. In this study, neutrophils obtained from COPD ...

Increased AGE-RAGE ratio in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background The abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal restorative capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been recently associated with an accelerated aging process as a key point for the altered wound healing. The advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the consequence of non-enzymatic reactions between lipid and protein with several oxidants in the aging process. The ...

Differential DNA methylation marks and gene comethylation of COPD in African-Americans with COPD exacerbations

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third-leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying COPD-associated DNA methylation marks in African-Americans may contribute to our understanding of racial disparities in COPD susceptibility. We determined differentially methylated genes and co-methylation network modules associated with COPD in African-Americans ...

EIF2AK4 mutation as “second hit” in hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension

Background Mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene have recently been identified in recessively inherited veno-occlusive disease. In this study we assessed if EIF2AK4 mutations occur also in a family with autosomal dominantly inherited pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and incomplete penetrance of bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 ...

Differences in systemic adaptive immunity contribute to the ‘frequent exacerbator’ COPD phenotype

Background Some COPD patients are more susceptible to exacerbations than others. Mechanisms underlying these differences in susceptibility are not well understood. We hypothesized that altered cell mediated immune responses may underlie a propensity to suffer from frequent exacerbations in COPD. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 24 stable COPD ...

Sirt1 expression is associated with CD31 expression in blood cells from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background Cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress has been shown to reduce silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) levels in lung tissue from smokers and patients with COPD patients. Sirt1 is known to inhibit endothelial senescence and may play a protective role in vascular cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized into circulation under various pathophysiological ...

Proteases and oxidant stress control organic dust induction of inflammatory gene expression in lung epithelial cells

Background Persistant inflammatory responses to infectious agents and other components in organic dust underlie lung injury and development of respiratory diseases. Organic dust components responsible for eliciting inflammation and the mechanisms by which they cause lung inflammation are not fully understood. We studied the mechanisms by which protease activities in poultry dust ...

Steroid resistance in COPD is associated with impaired molecular chaperone Hsp90 expression by pro-inflammatory lymphocytes

Background Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a ...

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation mediates lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation in hyperoxia-induced chronic lung disease in newborn rats

Background Previous studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. We hypothesized that NMDAR activation also participates in the development of chronic lung injury after withdrawal of hyperoxic conditions. Methods In order to rule out the anti-inflammatory ...

Circulating microparticles in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension increase intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression selectively in pulmonary artery endothelium

Background Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the ...

T cells suppress memory-dependent rapid mucous cell metaplasia in mouse airways

Background Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the ...

Predicting survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using GAP score: a nationwide cohort study

Background The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) varies widely. Although the GAP model is useful for predicting mortality, survivals have not yet been validated for each GAP score. We aimed to elucidate how prognosis is related to GAP score and GAP stage in IPF patients. Methods The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group conducted a national survey to ...

Neutrophil elastase cleaves epithelial cadherin in acutely injured lung epithelium

Background In acutely injured lungs, massively recruited polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) secrete abnormally neutrophil elastase (NE). Active NE creates a localized proteolytic environment where various host molecules are degraded leading to impairment of tissue homeostasis. Among the hallmarks of neutrophil-rich pathologies is a disrupted epithelium characterized by the loss ...

Basic science of electronic cigarettes: assessment in cell culture and in vivo models

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the ...

Perip7lakin is a target for autoimmunity in asthma

The role of autoimmunity targeting epithelial antigens in asthma has been suggested, in particular in non-atopic and severe asthma. Periplakin, a desmosomal component, is involved in epithelial cohesion and intracellular signaling. We detected anti-periplakin IgG antibodies in 47/260 (18 %) patients with asthma, with no association with severity or atopy. In addition, ...

Anti-inflammatory potential of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibitors in asthma patients

Background Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) and Janus-activated kinases (JAK) are both novel anti-inflammatory targets in asthma that affect lymphocyte activation. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibition on cytokine release from asthma bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and T-cell activation, and measured lung PI3Kδ and JAK ...

High levels of biomarkers of collagen remodeling are associated with increased mortality in COPD – results from the ECLIPSE study

Background There is a need to identify individuals with COPD at risk for disease progression and mortality. Lung tissue remodeling is associated with the release of extracellular matrix (ECM) fragments into the peripheral circulation. We hypothesized that ECM remodeling was associated with mortality in COPD and measured neo-epitopes originating from ECM proteins associated with ...

Effects of inhaled high-molecular weight hyaluronan in inflammatory airway disease

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is affecting thousands of patients worldwide. Adjuvant anti-inflammatory treatment is an important component of cystic fibrosis treatment, and has shown promise in preserving lung function and prolonging life expectancy. Inhaled high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is reported to improve tolerability of hypertonic ...

Extracellular ATP is involved in dsRNA-induced MUC5AC production via P2Y2R in human airway epithelium

Background In response to tissue damage or inflammation, adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) is released into the extracellular compartment and has been demonstrated to augment inflammation via purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs). Recently, ATP has been shown to be increased in the airways of COPD patients. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of extracellular ATP in ...

Prevalence and risk factors for asthma among children aged 0–14 years in Hangzhou: a cross-sectional survey

Background Asthma is a global problem. Prevalence varies among different countries and cities. We aimed to obtain the prevalence, describe the characteristics, and discover factors that may relate to asthma in Hangzhou. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou. The subjects were children aged 14 years and younger. A control group of non-asthma children that ...

Discordance in cathepsin B and cystatin C expressions in bronchoalveolar fluids between murine bleomycin-induced fibrosis and human idiopathic fibrosis

The activity of cysteine cathepsin B increased markedly in lung homogenates and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of the mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis after 14 days of challenge. In contrast the level of the cysteine cathepsin inhibitor cystatin C was unaffected in BALF of wild-type and cathepsin B-deficient mice. Therefore, murine cystatin C is not a ...