Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Comparing accelerometer, pedometer and a questionnaire for measuring physical activity in bronchiectasis: a validity and feasibility study?

Background There are challenges for researchers and clinicians to select the most appropriate physical activity tool, and a balance between precision and feasibility is needed. Currently it is unclear which physical activity tool should be used to assess physical activity in Bronchiectasis. The aim of this research is to compare assessment methods (pedometer and IPAQ) to our...

Transfer factor for carbon monoxide in patients with COPD and diabetes: results from the German COSYCONET cohort

Background An impairment of CO diffusing capacity has been shown in diabetic patients without lung disease. We analyzed how diffusing capacity in patients with COPD is affected by the concurrent diagnosis of diabetes. Methods Data from the initial visit of the German COPD cohort COSYCONET were used for analysis. 2575 patients with complete lung function data were included, among...

Regulatory T cells and IL10 suppress pulmonary host defense during early-life exposure to radical containing combustion derived ultrafine particulate matter

Background Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory...

Indacaterol and glycopyrronium versus indacaterol on body plethysmography measurements in COPD—a randomised controlled study

Background Dual bronchodilator therapy is recommended for symptomatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited data on effects of a combination of two long-acting bronchodilators on lung function including body plethysmography. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, single-dose, cross-over, placebo-controlled study evaluated...

End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern: an immunohistochemical analysis

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by vigorous airway inflammation eventually resulting in severe lung damage. This study aimed to describe the diversity of the inflammatory pattern in end-stage CF lungs by evaluating and quantifying which components of the innate and adaptive immunity are involved, and by assessing whether this is gender-specific...

Whole Transcriptome Analysis of Pre-invasive and Invasive Early Squamous Lung Carcinoma in Archival Laser Microdissected Samples

Background Preinvasive squamous cell cancer (PSCC) are local transformations of bronchial epithelia that are frequently observed in current or former smokers. Their different grades and sizes suggest a continuum of dysplastic change with increasing severity, which may culminate in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC). As a consequence of the difficulty in isolating cancerous...

No convincing association between genetic markers and respiratory symptoms: results of a GWA study

Background Respiratory symptoms are associated with accelerated lung function decline, and increased hospitalization and mortality rates in the general population. Although several environmental risk factors for respiratory symptoms are known, knowledge on genetic risk factors is lacking. We aim to identify genetic variants associated with respiratory symptoms by genome-wide...

Non-linear parameters of specific resistance loops to characterise obstructive airways diseases

Background Specific resistance loops appear in different shapes influenced by different resistive properties of the airways, yet their descriptive ability is compressed to a single parameter - its slope. We aimed to develop new parameters reflecting the various shapes of the loop and to explore their potential in the characterisation of obstructive airways diseases. Methods Our...

A randomized, seven-day study to assess the efficacy and safety of a glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler using novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background Long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β 2 -agonist combinations are recommended for patients whose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not managed with monotherapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate (GP)/formoterol fumarate (FF) fixed-dose combination delivered via a Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology-based metered dose inhaler...

Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA and mRNA Regulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, irreversible chronic inflammatory disorder typified by increased recruitment of monocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Because of this, as well as the convenience of peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) assessments, miRNA profiling of PBMCs has drawn increasing attention in recent years for various...

Gene profile of fibroblasts identify relation of CCL8 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the complex interaction of cells involved in chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Global gene expression of a homogenous cell population will identify novel candidate genes. Methods Gene expression of fibroblasts derived from lung tissues (8 IPF and 4 controls) was profiled, and ontology and functional pathway were...

The main rhinovirus respiratory tract adhesion site (ICAM-1) is upregulated in smokers and patients with chronic airflow limitation (CAL)

Background ICAM-1 is a major receptor for ~60% of human rhinoviruses, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, two major pathogens in COPD. Increased cell-surface expression of ICAM-1 in response to tobacco smoke exposure has been suggested. We have investigated epithelial ICAM-1 expression in both the large and small airways, and lung parenchyma in smoking-related chronic...

Cigarette smoke destabilizes NLRP3 protein by promoting its ubiquitination

Background Cigarette smoke suppresses innate immunity, making smokers more susceptible to infection. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that releases interleukin (IL) -1β and IL -18. These cytokines are critical for a timely host response to pathogens. Whether cigarette smoke affects NLRP3 protein levels, and its ability to form an inflammasome, is not known...

Effect of active vitamin D3 on VEGF-induced ADAM33 expression and proliferation in human airway smooth muscle cells: implications for asthma treatment

Background Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthma. Recent evidence indicates that a...

Eligibility of real-life patients with COPD for inclusion in RCTs: a commentary

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are performed to provide evidence to support treatment decisions. Based on the nature of those studies and the need to avoid confounding factors, it has been argued that the population selected in RCTs only partially represents the real-life population. This assumption casts doubts on the applicability of the results provided by RCTs in the...

Atrial natriuretic peptide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via vascular endothelial cells in mice: ANP for pulmonary fibrosis

Background Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive dyspnea and worsening pulmonary function. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a heart-derived secretory peptide used clinically in Japan for the treatment of acute heart failure, exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and lungs...

Evidence for harm reduction in COPD smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes

Background Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. There is a lack of data on the health effects of EC use among smokers with COPD and whether regular use results in improvement in subjective and objective COPD outcomes. We investigated long-term changes in...

Validated and longitudinally stable asthma phenotypes based on cluster analysis of the ADEPT study

Background Asthma is a disease of varying severity and differing disease mechanisms. To date, studies aimed at stratifying asthma into clinically useful phenotypes have produced a number of phenotypes that have yet to be assessed for stability and to be validated in independent cohorts. The aim of this study was to define and validate, for the first time ever, clinically driven...

Integrated safety and efficacy analysis of once-daily fluticasone furoate for the treatment of asthma

Background Fluticasone furoate is a once-daily inhaled corticosteroid. This report provides an overview of safety and efficacy data that support the use of once-daily fluticasone furoate 100 μg or 200 μg in adult and adolescent asthma patients. Methods Fourteen clinical studies (six Phase II and eight Phase III) were conducted as part of the fluticasone furoate global clinical...

The cellular kinetics of lung alveolar epithelial cells and its relationship with lung tissue repair after acute lung injury

Background Organ regeneration in mammals is hypothesized to require a functional pool of stem or progenitor cells, but the role of these cells in lung regeneration is unknown. Methods Based on the fact that postnatal regeneration of alveolar tissue has been attributed to alveolar epithelial cells, we established a hemorrhagic shock and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lung injury model...

‘The Microbiome and the Pathophysiology of Asthma’

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular...

Lung bioengineering: physical stimuli and stem/progenitor cell biology interplay towards biofabricating a functional organ

A current approach to obtain bioengineered lungs as a future alternative for transplantation is based on seeding stem cells on decellularized lung scaffolds. A fundamental question to be solved in this approach is how to drive stem cell differentiation onto the different lung cell phenotypes. Whereas the use of soluble factors as agents to modulate the fate of stem cells was...

Pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in mice exposed to crystalline silica

Background Occupational and environmental exposure to crystalline silica may lead to the development of silicosis, which is characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. A substantial number of patients diagnosed with silicosis develop pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension associated with silicosis and with related restrictive lung diseases significantly...

Increased expression of TROP2 in airway basal cells potentially contributes to airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background The airway epithelium of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoes aberrant repair and remodeling after repetitive injury following exposure to environmental factors. Abnormal airway regeneration observed in COPD is thought to originate in the stem/progenitor cells of the airway epithelium, the basal cells (BCs). However, the molecular mechanisms...