Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,007)

Pharmacological strategies to reduce exacerbation risk in COPD: a narrative review

Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an ...

Human primary airway epithelial cells isolated from active smokers have epigenetically impaired antiviral responses

Background Cigarette smoking (CS) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most COPD exacerbations are caused by respiratory infections including influenza. Influenza infections are more severe in smokers. The mechanism of the increased risk and severity of infections in smokers is likely multifactorial, but certainly includes ...

Serum extracellular vesicular miR-21-5p is a predictor of the prognosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a poor prognosis. Although the median survival is 3 years, the clinical course varies to a large extent among IPF patients. To date, there has been no definitive prognostic marker. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to hold nucleic acid, including microRNAs, and to regulate gene expression in the recipient cells. ...

Dose-response to inhaled glycopyrrolate delivered with a novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology metered dose inhaler (MDI) in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD

Background This study forms part of the first complete characterization of the dose–response curve for glycopyrrolate (GP) delivered using Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology via a metered dose inhaler (MDI). We examined the lower GP MDI dose range to determine an optimal dose for patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This randomized, ...

Metformin attenuates lung fibrosis development via NOX4 suppression

Background Accumulation of profibrotic myofibroblasts in fibroblastic foci (FF) is a crucial process for development of fibrosis during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a key regulatory role in myofibroblast differentiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed to be involved in the mechanism for TGF-β-induced ...

The impact of comorbidities on productivity loss in asthma patients

Background Health-related productivity loss is an important, yet overlooked, component of the economic burden of disease in asthma patients of a working age. We aimed at evaluating the effect of comorbidities on productivity loss among adult asthma patients. Methods In a random sample of employed adults with asthma, we measured comorbidities using a validated self-administered ...

ALK gene copy number gains in non-small-cell lung cancer: prognostic impact and clinico-pathological correlations

Background The correlation between ALK gene copy number gain (ALK-CNG) and prognosis in the context of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a controversial issue. This study aimed to evaluate the association among ALK-CNG according to Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH), clinical characteristics and survival in resectable and advanced NSCLC. Methods Clinical and ...

Simvastatin up-regulates adenosine deaminase and suppresses osteopontin expression in COPD patients through an IL-13-dependent mechanism

Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and osteopontin (OPN) may play opposing roles in the pathogenesis of COPD. Deficiency of ADA results in enhanced adenosine signaling which up-regulates OPN expression. Although statins suppress OPN in cancer cells, little is known about their effects on ADA and OPN in COPD patients. Methods We extended a previous randomized double-blind placebo ...

Upregulation of RGS2: a new mechanism for pirfenidone amelioration of pulmonary fibrosis

Background Pirfenidone was recently approved for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the therapeutic dose of pirfenidone is very high, causing side effects that limit its doses and therapeutic effectiveness. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of action of pirfenidone could improve its safety and efficacy. Because activated fibroblasts are critical effector ...

How to achieve safe, high-quality clinical studies with non-Medicinal Investigational Products? A practical guideline by using intra-bronchial carbon nanoparticles as case study

Background Clinical studies investigating medicinal products need to comply with laws concerning good clinical practice (GCP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to guarantee the quality and safety of the product, to protect the health of the participating individual and to assure proper performance of the study. However, there are no specific regulations or guidelines for ...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization enhances ventilator-associated pneumonia-induced lung injury

Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the single-most common pathogen of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Large quantities of PA in the trachea of ventilated patients are associated with an increased risk of death. However, the role of PA colonization in PA VAP-induced lung injury remains elusive. This study examined the effect and mechanism of PA colonization in ...

Lung-specific RNA interference of coupling factor 6, a novel peptide, attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. However, the exact regulatory mechanism of PAH is unknown. Although coupling factor 6 (CF6) is known to function as a repressor, its role in PAH has not been explored. Here, we investigated the involvement of endogenous CF6 in the ...

Cardiovascular autonomic alterations in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

Background Alterations of cardiac autonomic control (CAC) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with infectious and non-infectious diseases. No evaluation of CAC in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been performed so far. The aim of the study was to assess CAC in patients with CAP and evaluate the impact of its alterations on disease severity and clinical ...

Induction of pulmonary antibodies against oxidized lipids in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

Background Chronic cigarette smoke exposure is known to activate the adaptive immune system; however, the functional role of these processes is currently unknown. Given the role of oxidized lipids in driving innate inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke, we investigated whether an adaptive immune response against damaged lipids was induced following chronic cigarette smoke ...

The role of circulating thrombospondin-1 in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension

Background The vasoconstrictive protein TSP-1 is released from endothelial cells upon increased shear stress and hypoxia. Both conditions are prevalent in pulmonary hypertension (PH). TSP-1 damages the local microcirculation by disrupting pathways, which are essential for specific medical therapeutics. Furthermore, TSP-1 induces excessive fibrosis and smooth muscle proliferation - ...

Genes associated with polymorphic variants predicting lung function are differentially expressed during human lung development

Background Recent meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within/near 54 genes associated with lung function measures. Current understanding of the contribution of these genes to human lung development is limited. We set out to further define i) the expression profile of these genes during human lung development using ...

Distinct emphysema subtypes defined by quantitative CT analysis are associated with specific pulmonary matrix metalloproteinases

Background Emphysema is characterised by distinct pathological sub-types, but little is known about the divergent underlying aetiology. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix and have been identified as potentially important in the development of emphysema. However, the relationship between MMPs and emphysema sub-type is ...

Sarcoidosis activates diverse transcriptional programs in bronchoalveolar lavage cells

Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem immuno-inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that most commonly involves the lungs. We hypothesized that an unbiased approach to identify pathways activated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells can shed light on the pathogenesis of this complex disease. Methods We recruited 15 patients with various stages of sarcoidosis and 12 healthy ...

Cigarette smoke alters the ability of human dendritic cells to promote anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae Th17 response

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with chronic inflammation and impaired immune response to pathogens leading to bacteria-induced exacerbation of the disease. A defect in Th17 cytokines in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacteria associated with COPD exacerbations, has been recently reported. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen ...

Vimentin dephosphorylation at ser-56 is regulated by type 1 protein phosphatase in smooth muscle

Background The intermediate filament protein vimentin undergoes reversible phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at Ser-56, which plays an important role in regulating the contraction-relaxation cycles of smooth muscle. The protein phosphatases that mediate vimentin dephosphorylation in smooth muscle have not been previously investigated. Methods The associations of protein ...

A phase II trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of perioperative pirfenidone for prevention of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary resection: West Japan Oncology Group 6711 L (PEOPLE Study)

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often accompanies lung cancer, and life-threatening acute exacerbation (AE) of IPF (AE-IPF) is reported to occur in 20 % of IPF patients who undergo lung cancer surgery. Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent known to reduce disease progression in IPF patients. A phase II study was conducted to evaluate whether perioperative pirfenidone ...

A proof-of-concept clinical study examining the NRF2 activator sulforaphane against neutrophilic airway inflammation

Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is implicated as a possible therapy for airway inflammation via induction of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In this proof-of-concept clinical study, we show that supplementation of SFN with broccoli sprout homogenate in healthy human subjects did not induce expression ...

Novel biomarkers for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a deadly disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressures leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. The confirmatory gold standard test is the invasive right heart catheterization. The disease course is monitored by pulmonary artery systolic pressure measurement via transthoracic echocardiography. A simple non-invasive ...

Pulmonary effects of inhalation of spark-generated silver nanoparticles in Brown-Norway and Sprague–Dawley rats

Background The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products is concerning. We examined the potential toxic effects when inhaled in Brown-Norway (BN) rats with a pre-inflammatory state compared to Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Methods We determined the effect of AgNPs generated from a spark generator (mass concentration: 600–800 μg/mm 3 ; mean diameter: 13–16 nm; ...

Differential effect of mild and severe pulmonary embolism on the rat lung transcriptome

Background Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a common diagnosis and a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A growing literature has associated PE with systemic inflammation, and global hyper-coagulability, which contribute to lung remodeling and clot recurrence. The source and mechanism of inflammation remains unstudied. In humans, inhibition of cholesterol ...