Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Variable ventilation improves pulmonary function and reduces lung damage without increasing bacterial translocation in a rat model of experimental pneumonia

Background Variable ventilation has been shown to improve pulmonary function and reduce lung damage in different models of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, variable ventilation has not been tested during pneumonia. Theoretically, periodic increases in tidal volume (V T ) and airway pressures might worsen the impairment of alveolar barrier function usually seen...

Respiratory viral infections and host responses; insights from genomics

Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of disease and mortality. The severity of these illnesses can vary markedly from mild or asymptomatic upper airway infections to severe wheezing, bronchiolitis or pneumonia. In this article, we review the viral sensing pathways and organizing principles that govern the innate immune response to infection. Then, we reconstruct the...

Pulmonary endothelial activation caused by extracellular histones contributes to neutrophil activation in acute respiratory distress syndrome

Background During the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis, and their activation requires interaction with the endothelium. Extracellular histones have been recognized as pivotal inflammatory mediators. This study was to investigate the role of pulmonary endothelial activation during the extracellular histone-induced...

Diagnostic accuracy of methacholine challenge tests assessing airway hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients - a multifunctional approach

Background There are few studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of different lung function parameters evaluating dose–response characteristics of methacholine (MCH) challenge tests (MCT) as quantitative outcome of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in asthmatic patients. The aim of this retrospectively analysis of our database (Clinic Barmelweid, Switzerland) was, to assess diagnostic...

Impaired anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoid in neutrophil from patients with steroid-resistant asthma

Background Steroid resistant (SR) asthma is characterized by persistent airway inflammation that fails to resolve despite treatment with high doses of corticosteroids. Furthermore, SR patient airways show increased numbers neutrophils, which are less responsive to glucocorticoid. The present study seeks to determine whether dexamethasone (DEX) has different effect on neutrophils...

Evaluation of the use of Swedish integrated electronic health records and register health care data as support clinical trials in severe asthma: the PACEHR study

Background In the development of new drugs for severe asthma, it is a challenge from an ethical point of view to randomize severe asthma patients to placebo, and to obtain long-term safety data due to discontinuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using electronic health record (EHR) data to create a real-world reference population of uncontrolled...

The impact of low-frequency, low-force cyclic stretching of human bronchi on airway responsiveness

Background In vivo, the airways are constantly subjected to oscillatory strain (due to tidal breathing during spontaneous respiration) and (in the event of mechanical ventilation) positive pressure. This exposure is especially problematic for the cartilage-free bronchial tree. The effects of cyclic stretching (other than high-force stretching) have not been extensively...

Disharmony between wake- and respiration-promoting activities: effects of modafinil on ventilatory control in rodents

Background Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug and has been widely used for daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. A recent case series reported that daily oral modafinil alleviated hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with COPD. However, the precise action of modafinil on respiration such as hypercapnic and/or hypoxic ventilatory...

Rising total costs and mortality rates associated with admissions due to COPD exacerbations

Background To examine trends in mortality, costs and in-hospital management and outcomes of severe COPD exacerbations admitted in France. Methods Patients hospitalized from 2007 to 2012 with COPD exacerbation as the primary diagnosis were identified from the exhaustive French medico-administrative hospitalizations database records. Four groups of severe COPD exacerbations were...

Circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition characterized by airflow limitation associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, caused primarily by cigarette smoking. Increased oxidative burden plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. There is a delicate balance between the toxicity of oxidants...

Spirometric variability in smokers: transitions in COPD diagnosis in a five-year longitudinal study

Background Spirometrically-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered progressive but its natural history is inadequately studied. We hypothesized that spirometrically-defined COPD states could undergo beneficial transitions. Methods Participants in the Lovelace Smokers’ Cohort (n = 1553), primarily women, were longitudinally studied over 5 years...

Administration of JTE013 abrogates experimental asthma by regulating proinflammatory cytokine production from bronchial epithelial cells

Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid that acts as a signal transducer by binding to S1P receptors (S1PR) 1 to 5. The S1P/S1PRs pathway has been associated with remodeling and allergic inflammation in asthma, but the expression pattern of S1PR and its effects on non-immune cells have not been completely clarified. The aim of this study was to...

Non-neuronal cholinergic system contributes to corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

Background Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with long-acting beta-2 agonists is a well-documented combination therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on its additive anti-inflammatory properties. By contrast, the recommendation of ICS in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) is not evidence-based. In this study, neutrophils obtained from...

Increased AGE-RAGE ratio in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background The abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal restorative capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been recently associated with an accelerated aging process as a key point for the altered wound healing. The advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the consequence of non-enzymatic reactions between lipid and protein with several oxidants in the aging process. The...

Differential DNA methylation marks and gene comethylation of COPD in African-Americans with COPD exacerbations

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third-leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying COPD-associated DNA methylation marks in African-Americans may contribute to our understanding of racial disparities in COPD susceptibility. We determined differentially methylated genes and co-methylation network modules associated with COPD in African-Americans...

EIF2AK4 mutation as “second hit” in hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension

Background Mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene have recently been identified in recessively inherited veno-occlusive disease. In this study we assessed if EIF2AK4 mutations occur also in a family with autosomal dominantly inherited pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and incomplete penetrance of bone morphogenic protein receptor...

Differences in systemic adaptive immunity contribute to the ‘frequent exacerbator’ COPD phenotype

Background Some COPD patients are more susceptible to exacerbations than others. Mechanisms underlying these differences in susceptibility are not well understood. We hypothesized that altered cell mediated immune responses may underlie a propensity to suffer from frequent exacerbations in COPD. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 24 stable COPD...

Sirt1 expression is associated with CD31 expression in blood cells from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Background Cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress has been shown to reduce silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) levels in lung tissue from smokers and patients with COPD patients. Sirt1 is known to inhibit endothelial senescence and may play a protective role in vascular cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized into circulation under various pathophysiological...

Proteases and oxidant stress control organic dust induction of inflammatory gene expression in lung epithelial cells

Background Persistant inflammatory responses to infectious agents and other components in organic dust underlie lung injury and development of respiratory diseases. Organic dust components responsible for eliciting inflammation and the mechanisms by which they cause lung inflammation are not fully understood. We studied the mechanisms by which protease activities in poultry dust...

Steroid resistance in COPD is associated with impaired molecular chaperone Hsp90 expression by pro-inflammatory lymphocytes

Background Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a...

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation mediates lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation in hyperoxia-induced chronic lung disease in newborn rats

Background Previous studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. We hypothesized that NMDAR activation also participates in the development of chronic lung injury after withdrawal of hyperoxic conditions. Methods In order to rule out the anti...

Circulating microparticles in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension increase intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression selectively in pulmonary artery endothelium

Background Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the...

T cells suppress memory-dependent rapid mucous cell metaplasia in mouse airways

Background Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the...