Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Steroid resistance in COPD is associated with impaired molecular chaperone Hsp90 expression by pro-inflammatory lymphocytes

Background Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a...

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation mediates lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation in hyperoxia-induced chronic lung disease in newborn rats

Background Previous studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. We hypothesized that NMDAR activation also participates in the development of chronic lung injury after withdrawal of hyperoxic conditions. Methods In order to rule out the anti...

Circulating microparticles in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension increase intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression selectively in pulmonary artery endothelium

Background Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the...

T cells suppress memory-dependent rapid mucous cell metaplasia in mouse airways

Background Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the...

Predicting survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using GAP score: a nationwide cohort study

The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) varies widely. Although the GAP model is useful for predicting mortality, survivals have not yet been validated for each GAP score. We aimed to elucidate how prognosis is related to GAP score and GAP stage in IPF patients. The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group conducted a national survey to evaluate various...

Neutrophil elastase cleaves epithelial cadherin in acutely injured lung epithelium

Background In acutely injured lungs, massively recruited polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) secrete abnormally neutrophil elastase (NE). Active NE creates a localized proteolytic environment where various host molecules are degraded leading to impairment of tissue homeostasis. Among the hallmarks of neutrophil-rich pathologies is a disrupted epithelium characterized by the loss...

Basic science of electronic cigarettes: assessment in cell culture and in vivo models

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine...

Perip7lakin is a target for autoimmunity in asthma

The role of autoimmunity targeting epithelial antigens in asthma has been suggested, in particular in non-atopic and severe asthma. Periplakin, a desmosomal component, is involved in epithelial cohesion and intracellular signaling. We detected anti-periplakin IgG antibodies in 47/260 (18 %) patients with asthma, with no association with severity or atopy. In addition, anti...

Anti-inflammatory potential of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibitors in asthma patients

Background Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) and Janus-activated kinases (JAK) are both novel anti-inflammatory targets in asthma that affect lymphocyte activation. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibition on cytokine release from asthma bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and T-cell activation, and measured lung PI3Kδ and JAK...

High levels of biomarkers of collagen remodeling are associated with increased mortality in COPD – results from the ECLIPSE study

Background There is a need to identify individuals with COPD at risk for disease progression and mortality. Lung tissue remodeling is associated with the release of extracellular matrix (ECM) fragments into the peripheral circulation. We hypothesized that ECM remodeling was associated with mortality in COPD and measured neo-epitopes originating from ECM proteins associated with...

Effects of inhaled high-molecular weight hyaluronan in inflammatory airway disease

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is affecting thousands of patients worldwide. Adjuvant anti-inflammatory treatment is an important component of cystic fibrosis treatment, and has shown promise in preserving lung function and prolonging life expectancy. Inhaled high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is reported to improve tolerability of hypertonic...

Extracellular ATP is involved in dsRNA-induced MUC5AC production via P2Y2R in human airway epithelium

Background In response to tissue damage or inflammation, adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) is released into the extracellular compartment and has been demonstrated to augment inflammation via purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs). Recently, ATP has been shown to be increased in the airways of COPD patients. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of extracellular ATP in...

Prevalence and risk factors for asthma among children aged 0–14 years in Hangzhou: a cross-sectional survey

Background Asthma is a global problem. Prevalence varies among different countries and cities. We aimed to obtain the prevalence, describe the characteristics, and discover factors that may relate to asthma in Hangzhou. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou. The subjects were children aged 14 years and younger. A control group of non-asthma children that...

Discordance in cathepsin B and cystatin C expressions in bronchoalveolar fluids between murine bleomycin-induced fibrosis and human idiopathic fibrosis

The activity of cysteine cathepsin B increased markedly in lung homogenates and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of the mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis after 14 days of challenge. In contrast the level of the cysteine cathepsin inhibitor cystatin C was unaffected in BALF of wild-type and cathepsin B-deficient mice. Therefore, murine cystatin C is not a...

A HuR/TGF-β1 feedback circuit regulates airway remodeling in airway smooth muscle cells

Background Asthma is a worldwide health burden with an alarming prevalence. For years, asthma-associated airway injury remains elusive. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to be involved in the synthesis of the matrix molecules associated with airway remodeling. Human antigen R (HuR), the member of the Hu RNA-binding protein family...

Vitamin D and allergic airway disease shape the murine lung microbiome in a sex-specific manner

Background Vitamin D is under scrutiny as a potential regulator of the development of respiratory diseases characterised by chronic lung inflammation, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has anti-inflammatory effects; however, knowledge around the relationship between dietary vitamin D, inflammation and the microbiome in the lungs is limited. In our...

Respiratory symptoms, sleep-disordered breathing and biomarkers in nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux

Background Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) is associated with respiratory symptoms and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), but the pathogenesis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between nGER and respiratory symptoms, exacerbations of respiratory symptoms, SDB and airway inflammation. Methods Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey...

Maternal allergic disease history affects childhood allergy development through impairment of neonatal regulatory T-cells

Background Maternal allergic disease history and impaired regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are critical risk factors for allergy development in children. However, the mechanisms that underlie these risk factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether maternal allergies affect the Tregs of offspring and lead to allergy development in childhood...

Pharmacological strategies to reduce exacerbation risk in COPD: a narrative review

Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an...

Human primary airway epithelial cells isolated from active smokers have epigenetically impaired antiviral responses

Background Cigarette smoking (CS) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most COPD exacerbations are caused by respiratory infections including influenza. Influenza infections are more severe in smokers. The mechanism of the increased risk and severity of infections in smokers is likely multifactorial, but certainly...

Serum extracellular vesicular miR-21-5p is a predictor of the prognosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a poor prognosis. Although the median survival is 3 years, the clinical course varies to a large extent among IPF patients. To date, there has been no definitive prognostic marker. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to hold nucleic acid, including microRNAs, and to regulate gene expression in the recipient cells...