Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,007)

Occupational and environmental risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis in China: a multicentre cross-sectional study

Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is defined as a condition of inflammation in the paranasal sinus mucosa persisting for more than 12 weeks. We previously reported that the prevalence of CRS was about 8 % in China. Here, we aim to investigate the occupational and environmental risk factors associated with CRS. Methods Data were collected from seven Chinese cities: Urumqi, ...

Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine

Background The potential for adverse respiratory effects following exposure to electronic (e-) cigarette liquid (e-liquid) flavorings remains largely unexplored. Given the multitude of flavor permutations on the market, identification of those flavor constituents that negatively impact the respiratory tract is a daunting task. In this study we examined the impact of common e-liquid ...

Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction

Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of ...

Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses

Background The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils. Methods Neutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) ...

Knowledge about electronic cigarettes and its perception: a community survey, Egypt

Background Electronic cigarettes are promoted as safer products than traditional cigarettes and as smoking cessation devices. Awareness and perception are key elements for the adoption of new habits. Little is known about electronic cigarettes and public opinions towards it. This study aims to identify the prevalence of knowledge about electronic cigarettes, its perception, and use ...

Electronic cigarettes: a survey of perceived patient use and attitudes among members of the British thoracic oncology group

Background Smoking cessation following lung cancer diagnosis has been found to improve several patient outcomes. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is now prevalent within Great Britain, however, use and practice among patients with lung cancer has not as yet been explored. The current study aims to explore e-cigarette use among patients and examine current practice among ...

Microvascular reactivity is altered early in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. The resultant microvascular reactivity can be assessed non-invasively using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a vascular occlusion test (VOT) and changes have been correlated with severity of organ dysfunction and mortality in other critically ill populations. We used NIRS ...

Determinants and impact of suboptimal asthma control in Europe: The INTERNATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT ON ASTHMA CONTROL (LIAISON) study

Background According to the Global Initiative of Asthma, the aim of asthma treatment is to gain and maintain control. In the INTERNATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT ON ASTHMA CONTROL (LIAISON) study, we evaluated the level of asthma control and quality of life (QoL), as well as their determinants and impact in a population consulting specialist settings. Methods ...

Caveolin-1 regulates the expression of tight junction proteins during hyperoxia-induced pulmonary epithelial barrier breakdown

Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication in preterm infants that involves the downregulation of tight junction (TJ) proteins. However, the mechanism underlying downregulation of the expression of TJ proteins during at the early stages of hyperoxia-induced BPD remains to be understood. Here, we aimed to identify the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in ...

Ajulemic acid exerts potent anti-fibrotic effect during the fibrogenic phase of bleomycin lung

Background Ajulemic acid (AjA) is a synthetic analogue of tetrahydrocannabinol that can prevent and limit progression of skin fibrosis in experimental systemic sclerosis. In this study we investigated whether AjA also prevents and modulates lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) when administered in mice during the inflammatory or the fibrogenic phase of the model. Methods The ...

Defining a COPD composite safety endpoint for demonstrating efficacy in clinical trials: results from the randomized, placebo-controlled UPLIFT® trial

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinical trials evaluating hard endpoints (mortality, hospitalized exacerbations) require a large number of subjects and prolonged observational periods. We hypothesized that a composite endpoint of respiratory outcomes (CERO) can help evaluate safety and benefit in COPD trials. Methods Retrospective analysis of 5992 patients ...

Identification of vitamin D sensitive pathways during lung development

Background We have previously shown that vitamin D deficiency has a detrimental impact on lung development. In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanisms linking vitamin D with lung development using a mouse model of dietary manipulation. Methods Female offspring were euthanized at different time-points; embryonic day (E)14.5, E17.5 or postnatal day (P)7. Lung tissue was ...

Advanced glycation endproducts and their receptor in different body compartments in COPD

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation and emphysema, and is caused by exposure to noxious particles or gases, e.g. cigarette smoke. Smoking and oxidative stress lead to accelerated formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), causing local tissue damage either directly ...

CD4 + and CD8 + T cells play a central role in a HDM driven model of allergic asthma

Background The incidence of asthma is increasing at an alarming rate and while the current available therapies are effective in the majority of patients they fail to adequately control symptoms at the more severe end of the disease spectrum. In the search to understand disease pathogenesis and find effective therapies animal models are often employed. As exposure to house dust mite ...

Longitudinal stability of asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study

Background Asthma is a biologically heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. There is uncertainty regarding the stability of clinical characteristics and biomarkers in asthma over time. This report presents the longitudinal stability over 12 months of clinical characteristics and clinically accessible ...

Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as understanding the biomechanical properties to build artificial lung devices. In addition, ...

Gene-expression profiles in lung adenocarcinomas related to chronic wood smoke or tobacco exposure

Background Tobacco-smoke is the major etiological factor related to lung cancer. However, other important factor is chronic wood smoke exposure (WSE). Approximately 30 % of lung cancer patients in Mexico have a history of WSE, and present different clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics compared to tobacco related lung cancer, including differences in mutational ...

Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in subjects with asthma by total serum IgE level

Background Emerging data suggest that innate immunity may play a role in asthma, particularly the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Some studies pointed to an involvement of TLRs 2 and 4 in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and other studies related TLRs to IgE. However, there are not any studies that have comprehensively evaluated the expression of TLRs 2 and 4 in inflammatory cells, ...

The association of lung function and St. George's respiratory questionnaire with exacerbations in COPD: a systematic literature review and regression analysis

Background This study investigated the relationship between changes in lung function (as measured by forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV 1 ]) and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and economically significant outcomes of exacerbations and health resource utilization, with an aim to provide insight into whether the effects of COPD treatment on lung function ...

Profibrotic role of WNT10A via TGF-β signaling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background WNT/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, the role of WNT10A via transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling remains unclear. Methods We evaluated the expression of WNT10A and TGF-β in bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice and the interactions between TGF-β or BLM and WNT10A in vitro. Additionally, we ...

Innovations in health information technologies for chronic pulmonary diseases

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common chronic obstructive lung disorders in the US that affect over 49 million people. There is no cure for asthma or COPD, but clinical guidelines exist for controlling symptoms that are successful in most patients that adhere to their treatment plan. Health information technologies (HITs) are revolutionizing healthcare ...

Randomised trial of once-daily vilanterol in children with asthma on inhaled corticosteroid therapy

Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are effective maintenance treatments for childhood asthma; however, many children remain uncontrolled. Vilanterol (VI) is an inhaled long-acting beta-2 agonist which, in combination with the ICS fluticasone furoate, is being explored as a once-daily treatment for asthma in children. We evaluated the dose–response, efficacy, and safety of ...

Human lung fibroblasts may modulate dendritic cell phenotype and function: results from a pilot in vitro study

In human lung fibrotic lesions, fibroblasts were shown to be closely associated with immature dendritic cell (DC) accumulation. The aim of the present pilot study was to characterize the role of pulmonary fibroblasts on DC phenotype and function, using co-culture of lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and from control patients, with a DC cell ...

β-Glucan exacerbates allergic airway responses to house dust mite allergen

β-(1,3)-Glucan is present in mould cell walls and frequently detected in house dust mite (HDM) faeces. β-Glucan exposure is thought to be associated with pulmonary allergic inflammation in mouse and man, although the published data are inconsistent. Here, we show that highly purified β-glucan exacerbates HDM-induced eosinophilic, T helper 2 type airway responses by acting as an ...