Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Evaluation of the effects of olodaterol on exercise endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from two 6-week crossover studies

Background Two replicate, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week crossover studies assessed the effect of the once-daily long-acting β 2 -agonist olodaterol 5 μg and 10 μg on constant work-rate cycle endurance in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods Patients received placebo, olodaterol 5 μg once daily (QD) and olodaterol 10 μg QD...

Tissue turnover of collagen type I, III and elastin is elevated in the PCLS model of IPF and can be restored back to vehicle levels using a phosphodiesterase inhibitor

Background The aim of this study was to develop and validate a model for pulmonary fibrosis, using ex vivo tissue cultures of lungs from bleomycin treated animals, enabling the investigation of fibrosis remodeling using novel biomarkers for the detection of ECM protein fragments. The combination of in vivo and ex vivo models together with ECM remodeling markers may provide a...

Inflammation and emphysema in cigarette smoke-exposed mice when instilled with poly (I:C) or infected with influenza A or respiratory syncytial viruses

Background The length of time for cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to cause emphysema in mice is drastically reduced when CS exposure is combined with viral infection. However, the extent of inflammatory responses and lung pathologies of mice exposed to CS and infected with influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or treated with the viral derivative dsRNA...

Effects of tiotropium + olodaterol versus tiotropium or placebo by COPD disease severity and previous treatment history in the OTEMTO® studies

Background As lung function declines rapidly in the early stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the effects of bronchodilators in patients with moderate disease and those who have not previously received maintenance therapy are of interest. OTEMTO® 1 and 2 were two replicate, 12-week, Phase III studies investigating the benefit of tiotropium + olodaterol on lung...

Development of the Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension-Symptoms and Impact (PAH-SYMPACT®) questionnaire: a new patient-reported outcome instrument for PAH

Background Regulators and clinical experts increasingly recognize the importance of incorporating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical studies of therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). No PAH-specific instruments have been developed to date in accordance with the 2009 FDA guidance for the development of PROs as endpoints in clinical trials. A qualitative...

Acute lung injury induced by whole gastric fluid: hepatic acute phase response contributes to increase lung antiprotease protection

Background Gastric contents aspiration in humans is a risk factor for severe respiratory failure with elevated mortality. Although aspiration-induced local lung inflammation has been studied in animal models, little is known about extrapulmonary effects of aspiration. We investigated whether a single orotracheal instillation of whole gastric fluid elicits a liver acute phase...

Pharmacological characterisation of the interaction between glycopyrronium bromide and indacaterol fumarate in human isolated bronchi, small airways and bronchial epithelial cells

Background Nowadays, there is a considerable gap in knowledge concerning the mechanism(s) by which long-acting β 2 -agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) interact to induce bronchodilation. This study aimed to characterise the pharmacological interaction between glycopyrronium bromide and indacaterol fumarate and to identify the mechanism(s) leading to...

Elevated levels of FN1 and CCL2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from sarcoidosis patients

Background Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous systemic inflammatory disease in which more than 90 % of all patients develop pulmonary manifestations. Several gene associations have previously been described, but established and clinically useful biomarkers are still absent. This study aimed to find proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid that can be associated with the disease...

Exposure to common respiratory bacteria alters the airway epithelial response to subsequent viral infection

Background Colonization of the airways with potential pathogenic bacteria is observed in a number of chronic respiratory diseases, such as COPD or cystic fibrosis. Infections with respiratory viruses are known triggers of exacerbations of these diseases. We here investigated if pre-exposure to bacteria alters the response of lung epithelial cells to subsequent viral infection...

Role of the ion channel, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), in allergic asthma

Background Asthma prevalence has increased world-wide especially in children; thus there is a need to develop new therapies that are safe and effective especially for patients with severe/refractory asthma. CD4 + T cells are thought to play a central role in disease pathogenesis and associated symptoms. Recently, TRPV1 has been demonstrated to regulate the activation and...

Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs’ surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important...

The role of tissue factor and autophagy in pulmonary vascular remodeling in a rat model for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Background Few reports have examined tissue factor (TF) and autophagy expression in chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension (CTEPH) animal models. Objectives: To investigate the role of tissue factor (TF), autophagy and their interactions during chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) pathogenesis in a rat model. Methods Autologous blood clots were repeatedly...

A rapid NGS strategy for comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

Background Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) or pulmonary cysts is one of the manifestations of Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHDS) that is caused by heterozygous mutations in FLCN gene. Most of the mutations are SNVs and small indels, and there are also approximately 10 % large intragenic deletions and duplications of the mutations. These molecular findings are generally...

Therapeutic effect of budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and N-acetylcysteine for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Background Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently treated with systemic corticosteroids despite poor efficacy and side effects. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine, which are suggested as treatment options for BOS after HSCT. Methods...

Investigating the role of MRGPRC11 and capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in the anti-influenza effects exerted by SLIGRL-amide in murine airways

Background The hexapeptide SLIGRL-amide activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and mas-related G protein-coupled receptor C11 (MRGPRC11), both of which are known to be expressed on populations of sensory nerves. SLIGRL-amide has recently been reported to inhibit influenza A (IAV) infection in mice independently of PAR-2 activation, however the explicit roles of MRGPRC11...

The effect of aclidinium bromide on daily respiratory symptoms of COPD, measured using the Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD (E-RS: COPD) diary: pooled analysis of two 6-month Phase III studies

Background Reducing the severity of respiratory symptoms is a key goal in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the effect of aclidinium bromide 400 μg twice daily (BID) on respiratory symptoms, assessed using the Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD (E-RS ™ : COPD) scale (formerly EXACT-RS). Methods Data were pooled from the aclidinium...

Toxic and adjuvant effects of silica nanoparticles on ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice

Background Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) can easily enter in respiratory system via inhalation because of their low molecular weight and ease of dispersion. Toxicity and adverse effects of SNPs vary according to the physical characteristics of the particle. Methods To evaluate the toxic and adjuvant effects of 3 types of SNPs in the airway system, six-week-old female BALB/c mice...

Occupational and environmental risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis in China: a multicentre cross-sectional study

Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is defined as a condition of inflammation in the paranasal sinus mucosa persisting for more than 12 weeks. We previously reported that the prevalence of CRS was about 8 % in China. Here, we aim to investigate the occupational and environmental risk factors associated with CRS. Methods Data were collected from seven Chinese cities: Urumqi...

Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine

Background The potential for adverse respiratory effects following exposure to electronic (e-) cigarette liquid (e-liquid) flavorings remains largely unexplored. Given the multitude of flavor permutations on the market, identification of those flavor constituents that negatively impact the respiratory tract is a daunting task. In this study we examined the impact of common e...

Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction

Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e...

Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses

Background The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils. Methods Neutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE...

Knowledge about electronic cigarettes and its perception: a community survey, Egypt

Background Electronic cigarettes are promoted as safer products than traditional cigarettes and as smoking cessation devices. Awareness and perception are key elements for the adoption of new habits. Little is known about electronic cigarettes and public opinions towards it. This study aims to identify the prevalence of knowledge about electronic cigarettes, its perception, and...

Electronic cigarettes: a survey of perceived patient use and attitudes among members of the British thoracic oncology group

Background Smoking cessation following lung cancer diagnosis has been found to improve several patient outcomes. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is now prevalent within Great Britain, however, use and practice among patients with lung cancer has not as yet been explored. The current study aims to explore e-cigarette use among patients and examine current practice among...

Microvascular reactivity is altered early in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. The resultant microvascular reactivity can be assessed non-invasively using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a vascular occlusion test (VOT) and changes have been correlated with severity of organ dysfunction and mortality in other critically ill populations. We used...