Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,007)

Free light chains: potential biomarker and predictor of mortality in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and usual COPD

Background Circulating free light chains (FLCs) can alter neutrophil migration, apoptosis and activation and may be a biomarker of autoimmune disease and adaptive immune system activation. These pathogenic roles could be relevant to lung disease in alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Total combined (c)FLCs were measured ...

The linear relationship between systolic pulmonary artery pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure is maintained regardless of autonomic or rhythm disturbances

Background In the pulmonary circulation, there is a linear relationship between systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP). The aim of this study was to determine the passive or active nature of this mechanism by exploring the relationship in patients with and without autonomic rhythm control of the heart and pulmonary circulation. ...

The cytokine interleukin-26 as a biomarker in pediatric asthma

In this pilot study, we examined associations between local interleukin (IL)-26, disease severity and biomarkers of Th2-mediated inflammation in a well-defined cohort of pediatric patients (14 years median age, 41 % females) with controlled (n = 28) or uncontrolled (n = 48) asthma. Sputum IL-26 protein concentrations (ELISA) reflected disease control in patients without local (low ...

Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-RR regulates corticosteroid sensitivity

Background We have recently reported that protein phosphate 2A (PP2A) inactivation resulted in increased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) at Ser 226 , thereby reducing GR nuclear translocation and causing corticosteroid insensitivity in severe asthmatics. Protein tyrosine phosphatases ...

YKL-40 expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: relation to acute exacerbations and airway remodeling

Background Recent studies suggest that YKL-40, also called chitinase-3-like-1 protein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. It is currently unknown, however, whether YKL-40 plays a role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and airway remodeling. Methods We evaluated serum YKL-40 levels in patients with AECOPD ...

A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of quilizumab in adults with inadequately controlled allergic asthma

Background Quilizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, targets the M1-prime segment of membrane-expressed IgE, leading to depletion of IgE-switched and memory B cells. In patients with mild asthma, quilizumab reduced serum IgE and attenuated the early and late asthmatic reaction following whole lung allergen challenge. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ...

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 is highly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells of untreated asthma and it increases cell proliferation along with fibronectin production in airway constitutive cells

Background Type 2 helper T-cell cytokines including IL-13 play a central role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (BA). During the course of our research, our attention was drawn to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) as one of the molecules that were induced from bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) by IL-13 stimulation. DPP4 could become a new biomarker or therapeutic target. The aim ...

Effect of tiotropium on night-time awakening and daily rescue medication use in patients with COPD

Background Several small studies found night-time awakenings due to COPD symptoms were associated with decreased health status. In this study, night-time awakenings in patients with COPD were examined and effects of tiotropium therapy evaluated. Methods This study was a post hoc, exploratory, pooled analysis of twin, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, ...

Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness

Background Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, ...

Diet-induced obesity alters myeloid cell populations in naïve and injured lung

Background There are pulmonary consequences to obesity, including increased prevalence of asthma, greater susceptibility to influenza, and possibly reduced susceptibility to lung injury. Although it is well established that obesity is associated with alterations to the immune system, little is known about obesity-associated changes to pulmonary immune cells. Objectives We ...

The activation of M3 mAChR in airway epithelial cells promotes IL-8 and TGF-β1 secretion and airway smooth muscle cell migration

Background Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have been identified in airway epithelium, and epithelium-derived chemokines can initiate the migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. However, the mAChRs that are expressed in airway epithelium and the mechanism underlying the regulation of ASM cell migration are not clear. The aim of this study was to test whether the ...

Role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and devastating lung disorder of unknown origin, with very poor prognosis and no effective treatment. The disease is characterized by abnormal activation of alveolar epithelial cells, which secrete numerous mediators involved in the expansion of the fibroblast population, its differentiation to myofibroblasts, and in the ...

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: a large single family cohort

Background Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by dermatologic lesions, pulmonary manifestations, and renal tumors. The syndrome arises from germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene. We present findings from the single largest family BHD cohort described to date. Primary objectives were to characterize cystic lung changes on ...

CXCL13 in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Background Chemokine CXC ligand 13 (CXCL13) has been implicated in perivascular inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in patients with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH). We wondered whether CXCL13 may also play a role in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and whether serum levels of CXCL13 might serve as biomarkers in these conditions. ...

Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT): an active process in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

Small airway fibrosis is the main contributor to physiological airway dysfunction in COPD. One potential mechanism contributing to small airway fibrosis is epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). When associated with angiogenesis (so called EMT-Type-3) it may well also be the link with the development of airway epithelial cancer, which is closely associated with COPD and ...

C-type natriuretic peptide ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by acting on lung fibroblasts in mice

Background Pulmonary fibrosis has high rates of mortality and morbidity; however, no effective pharmacological therapy has been established. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, selectively binds to the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase (GC)-B receptor and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in various organs through vascular ...

Can roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, improve clinical outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? A meta-analysis

Background Effects of roflumilast on lung function, symptoms, acute exacerbation and adverse events in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are controversial. We aimed to further clarify the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in treatment of moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods From 1946 to November 2015, we searched the Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central ...

Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes lung fibroblast proliferation, survival and differentiation to myofibroblasts

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressively fatal disease. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein that induces the expression of some matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in neighboring stromal cells through direct epithelial–stromal interactions. EMMPRIN is highly expressed in type II alveolar ...

Screening and managing obstructive sleep apnoea in nocturnal heart block patients: an observational study

Background Nocturnal heart block often occurs in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is more likely to be undiagnosed in heart block patients who are ignorant of the symptoms of sleep disorder. Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is a highly reliable way to discover the risk factors of OSA, whereas the validity in sleep-related heart block patients is uncertain. We performed an ...

Soluble adenylyl cyclase mediates hydrogen peroxide-induced changes in epithelial barrier function

Background Elevated H 2 O 2 levels are associated with inflammatory diseases and H 2 O 2 exposure is known to disrupt epithelial barrier function, leading to increased permeability and decreased electrical resistance. In normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, fully differentiated at the air liquid interface (ALI), H 2 O 2 activates an autocrine prostaglandin pathway that ...

Combination therapy of tiotropium and ciclesonide attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling in a guinea pig model of chronic asthma

Background The long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium has recently been registered for the treatment of asthma, and its use is associated with a reduction in exacerbation frequency. Anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects of tiotropium have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models. Because tiotropium treatment is used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, ...

Pirfenidone and nintedanib modulate properties of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable lung disease with a poor prognosis. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are the key cells in the fibrotic process. Recently two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, were approved for clinical use as they are able to slow down the disease progression. The mechanisms by which these two drugs act in in vitro cell systems are not ...

Absence of human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus from bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsies of selected patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Previous studies have reported very different rates of human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genome detection in nasal and sputum samples, but not in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial biopsy samples. Our study aimed to investigate the presence of HRV and RSV in the lungs of 31 consecutive patients with stable COPD (11 GOLD stage I, 11 II, and 9 III) ...

Intralymphatic immunotherapy of pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial

Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents the only disease-modifying treatment for allergic diseases. We and others have previously demonstrated that intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), a less time-consuming alternative to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), is safe and effective. However, this has recently been disputed. The aim of this study was therefore ...