Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,012)

Asthma and PM10

PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances ...

Activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in airway smooth muscle: a potential pathway that modulates bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma?

The cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness are unclear. Current studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a cytokine that is produced in considerable quantities in asthmatic airways, may potentially be involved in the development of bronchial hyper-responsiveness by directly altering the contractile properties of the airway ...

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: role of voltage-gated potassium channels

Activity of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels controls membrane potential, which subsequently regulates cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Acute hypoxia inhibits Kv channel function in PASMCs, inducing membrane depolarization and a rise in [Ca2+ ]cyt that triggers vasoconstriction. Prolonged hypoxia inhibits ...

Immune modulation in the treatment of respiratory infection

The limitations of currently available treatment for severe respiratory infection are demonstrated by the relatively fixed mortality associated with these infections despite advances in nutrition, vaccines, antibiotics, and critical care. This might be due in part to the changing spectrum of pathogens and development of drug resistance. Cytokines are potent molecules that function ...

Interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene variants and allergic disease

The interleukin-4 (IL-4) signalling cascade has been identified as a pathway potentially important in the development of asthma. Genetic variants within this signalling pathway might contribute to the risk of developing asthma in a given individual. A number of polymorphisms have been described within the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) gene. In addition polymorphism occurs in the ...

Genomic approaches to research in lung cancer

The medical research community is experiencing a marked increase in the amount of information available on genomic sequences and genes expressed by humans and other organisms. This information offers great opportunities for improving our understanding of complex diseases such as lung cancer. In particular, we should expect to witness a rapid increase in the rate of discovery of ...

From fruitflies to mammals: mechanisms of signalling via the Sonic hedgehog pathway in lung development

The hedgehog signalling pathway has been implicated in many different processes in fly and vertebrate development. It is now known that the hedgehog cascade is crucial for the patterning of the early respiratory system. Hedgehog signalling in the lung involves Gli transcription proteins, but their potential downstream target genes have yet to be identified. Bmp4 and Fgf10 have been ...

Anti-cytokine therapy in fibrosing alveolitis: where are we now?

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a condition that has a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 4-5 years irrespective of treatment. Ziesche et al (N Engl J Med 1999, 341: 1264-1269) describe an open randomised trial of 18 patients with IPF, unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment at high dose. Nine patients were treated with continued corticosteroid and nine with ...

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a critical signalling event in pulmonary cells

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI-3Ks) are enzymes that generate lipid second messenger molecules, resulting in the activation of multiple intracellular signalling cascades. These events regulate a broad array of cellular responses including survival, activation, differentiation and proliferation and are now recognised to have a key role in a number of physiological and ...