Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Risk factors for hospitalization among adults with asthma: the influence of sociodemographic factors and asthma severity

Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern...

Matrix metalloproteinases in lung biology

Despite much information on their catalytic properties and gene regulation, we actually know very little of what matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) do in tissues. The catalytic activity of these enzymes has been implicated to function in normal lung biology by participating in branching morphogenesis, homeostasis, and repair, among other events. Overexpression of MMPs, however, has...

Respirable antisense oligonucleotides: a new drug class for respiratory disease

Respirable antisense oligonucleotides (RASONs), which attenuate specific disease-associated mRNAs, represent a new class of respiratory therapeutics with considerable potential. RASONs overcome previous obstacles that have impeded the development of antisense therapeutics targeting diseases in other organ systems. RASONs are delivered directly to the target tissue via inhalation...

Is there a role for glucocorticoid receptor beta in asthma?

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used as anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. They act through binding to glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), which represses numerous genes encoding pro-inflammatory mediators. A hormone binding deficient GR isoform named GRβ has been isolated in humans. When overexpressed by transfection, GRβ may function as a dominant negative...

Importance of lysosomal cysteine proteases in lung disease

The human lysosomal cysteine proteases are a family of 11 proteases whose members include cathepsins B, C, H, L, and S. The biology of these proteases was largely ignored for decades because of their lysosomal location and the belief that their function was limited to the terminal degradation of proteins. In the past 10 years, this view has changed as these proteases have been...

Early glandular neoplasia of the lung

Although bronchogenic carcinomas progress through a very well defined sequence of metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, very little is known about the early progression of glandular neoplasms of the lung. In particular, the early precursor lesion from which fully malignant adenocarcinomas arise has effectively eluded recognition, at least until recently. Several lines of...

Unique presentations and chronic complications in adult cystic fibrosis: do they teach us anything about CFTR?

The increase in numbers of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) has allowed us to identify previously unrecognized chronic complications of CF, as well as appreciate unique presentations of cystic fibrosis-related diseases. Do these chronic complications and unique presentations provide us with new insight into cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function...

Oxygen-regulated transcription factors and their role in pulmonary disease

The transcription factors nuclear factor interleukin-6 (NF-IL6), early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) have important roles in the molecular pathophysiology of hypoxia-associated pulmonary disease. NF-IL6 controls the production of interleukin (IL)-6 in vascular endothelial cells, which may have anti-inflammatory activity by counteracting effects...

Role of gammadelta T cells in protecting normal airway function

Since their discovery 15 years ago, the role of γδ T cells has remained somewhat elusive. Responses of γδ T cells have been found in numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. New evidence points to γδ T cells' functioning in the airways to maintain normal airway responsiveness or tone. In the lung, distinct subsets of γδ T cell subsets seem to have specific roles, one...

Mimicking microbial 'education' of the immune system: a strategy to revert the epidemic trend of atopy and allergic asthma?

Deficient microbial stimulation of the immune system, caused by hygiene, may underly the atopy and allergic asthma epidemic we are currently experiencing. Consistent with this 'hygiene hypothesis', research on immunotherapy of allergic diseases also centres on bacteria-derived molecules (eg DNA immunostimulatory sequences) as adjuvants for allergen-specific type 1 immune...

Epithelial antimicrobial peptides in host defense against infection

One component of host defense at mucosal surfaces seems to be epithelium-derived antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides are classified on the basis of their structure and amino acid motifs. Peptides of the defensin, cathelicidin, and histatin classes are found in humans. In the airways, α-defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 originate from neutrophils. β-Defensins...

Leukocyte trafficking in alveoli and airway passages

Many pulmonary diseases preferentially affect the large airways or the alveoli. Although the mechanisms are often particular to each disease process, site-specific differences in leukocyte trafficking and the regulation of inflammation also occur. Differences in the process of margination, sequestration, adhesion, and migration occur that can be attributed to differences in...