Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,034)

Mimicking microbial 'education' of the immune system: a strategy to revert the epidemic trend of atopy and allergic asthma?

Deficient microbial stimulation of the immune system, caused by hygiene, may underly the atopy and allergic asthma epidemic we are currently experiencing. Consistent with this 'hygiene hypothesis', research on immunotherapy of allergic diseases also centres on bacteria-derived molecules (eg DNA immunostimulatory sequences) as adjuvants for allergen-specific type 1 immune responses. ...

Epithelial antimicrobial peptides in host defense against infection

One component of host defense at mucosal surfaces seems to be epithelium-derived antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides are classified on the basis of their structure and amino acid motifs. Peptides of the defensin, cathelicidin, and histatin classes are found in humans. In the airways, α-defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 originate from neutrophils. β-Defensins ...

Leukocyte trafficking in alveoli and airway passages

Many pulmonary diseases preferentially affect the large airways or the alveoli. Although the mechanisms are often particular to each disease process, site-specific differences in leukocyte trafficking and the regulation of inflammation also occur. Differences in the process of margination, sequestration, adhesion, and migration occur that can be attributed to differences in ...

Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the ...

Taking stock of gene therapy for cystic fibrosis

The identification of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene opened the way for gene therapy. In the ten years since then, proof of principle in vitro and then in animal models in vivo has been followed by numerous clinical studies using both viral and non-viral vectors to transfer normal copies of the gene to the lungs and noses of CF patients. A wealth of data have emerged from these ...

Transcriptional regulation of lung development: emergence of specificity

The lung is the product of a set of complex developmental interactions between two distinct tissues, the endodermally derived epithelium and the mesoderm. Each tissue contributes to lung development by fine-tuning the spatial and temporal pattern of gene expression for a distinct array of signaling molecules, transcriptional molecules and molecules related to the extracellular ...

Mechanical ventilation: lessons from the ARDSNet trial

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized clinically by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, decreased pulmonary compliance and hypoxemia. Although supportive care for ARDS seems to have improved over the past few decades, few studies have shown that any treatment can decrease mortality for this deadly syndrome. In the 4 May ...

Surfactant protein-D and pulmonary host defense

Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) participates in the innate response to inhaled microorganisms and organic antigens, and contributes to immune and inflammatory regulation within the lung. SP-D is synthesized and secreted by alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, but is also expressed by epithelial cells lining various exocrine ducts and the mucosa of the gastrointestinal and ...

The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease) as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease

Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from ...

Nitric oxide: a pro-inflammatory mediator in lung disease?

Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract are commonly associated with elevated production of nitric oxide (NO•) and increased indices of NO• -dependent oxidative stress. Although NO• is known to have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, various lines of evidence support the contribution of NO• to lung injury in several disease models. On the basis of ...

What have transgenic and knockout animals taught us about respiratory disease?

Over the past decade there has been a significant shift to the use of murine models for investigations into the molecular basis of respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These models offer the exciting prospect of dissecting the complex interaction between cytokines, chemokines and growth related peptides in disease pathogenesis. ...

The gene encoding interleukin-13: a susceptibility locus for asthma and related traits

Asthma is a complex inflammatory disorder controlled by both genetic and environmental influences. Multiple genetic analyses have identified the T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q as a susceptibility locus for asthma. Recently, the Th2 cytokine interleukin-13 has been shown to be a critical mediator of the asthma phenotype in murine models. In this ...

Size does matter: overcoming the adeno-associated virus packaging limit

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors mediate long-term gene transfer without any known toxicity. The primary limitation of rAAV has been the small size of the virion (20 nm), which only permits the packaging of 4.7 kilobases (kb) of exogenous DNA, including the promoter, the polyadenylation signal and any other enhancer elements that might be desired. Two recent ...

Chemokines and their role in airway hyper-reactivity

Airway hyper-reactivity is a characteristic feature of many inflammatory lung diseases and is defined as an exaggerated degree of airway narrowing. Chemokines and their receptors are involved in several pathological processes that are believed to contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness, including recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition and airway ...

Asthma and PM10

PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances ...

Activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in airway smooth muscle: a potential pathway that modulates bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma?

The cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness are unclear. Current studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a cytokine that is produced in considerable quantities in asthmatic airways, may potentially be involved in the development of bronchial hyper-responsiveness by directly altering the contractile properties of the airway ...