European Journal of Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/394

List of Papers (Total 239)

Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements

Purpose To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. Methods SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. ...

Sex- and age-specific percentiles of body composition indices for Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

Purpose The aims of the study were to develop sex- and age-specific percentiles for lean mass index (LMI), appendicular LMI (aLMI), fat mass index (FMI), and body fat distribution indices in Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to compare those indices with those of other ethnicities using the US NHANES data. Methods Whole-body and regional lean mass and ...

Metabolites of milk intake: a metabolomic approach in UK twins with findings replicated in two European cohorts

Purpose Milk provides a significant source of calcium, protein, vitamins and other minerals to Western populations throughout life. Due to its widespread use, the metabolic and health impact of milk consumption warrants further investigation and biomarkers would aid epidemiological studies. Methods Milk intake assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire was analyzed ...

Sugars, obesity, and cardiovascular disease: results from recent randomized control trials

The relationship between sugar consumption and various health-related sequelas is controversial. Some investigators have argued that excessive sugar consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and stimulation of reward pathways in the brain potentially causing excessive ...

Circulating linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid and glucose metabolism: the Hoorn Study

Purpose Data on the relation between linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum LA and ALA with fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Method This study included 667 participants from third examination ...

Fruitflow®: the first European Food Safety Authority-approved natural cardio-protective functional ingredient

Hyperactive platelets, in addition to their roles in thrombosis, are also important mediators of atherogenesis. Antiplatelet drugs are not suitable for use where risk of a cardiovascular event is relatively low. It is therefore important to find alternative safe antiplatelet inhibitors for the vulnerable population who has hyperactive platelets in order to reduce the risk of ...

Protein intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition at 6 years: the Generation R Study

Purpose Intra-uterine exposure to protein may affect body composition and may increase the prevalence of childhood adiposity. Therefore, we examined whether protein intake during pregnancy is associated with offspring body composition at the age of 6 years and whether associations differ for animal protein and vegetable protein. Methods We included 2694 Dutch mother–child pairs ...

Sugar addiction: the state of the science

Purpose As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying ‘food addiction’ (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. Methods ...

Efficacy of different fibres and flour mixes in South-Asian flatbreads for reducing post-prandial glucose responses in healthy adults

Purpose Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing, particularly in South-East Asia. Intake of high-glycaemic foods has been positively associated with T2DM, and feasible routes to reduce the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-rich staple foods are needed. The research question was whether different fibre and legume flour mixes in flatbreads lower postprandial glucose (PPG) responses. ...

Controversies about sugars consumption: state of the science

Introduction Few topics in nutrition generate more controversy and debate than the putative associations between added sugars and health. With this as background, a group of researchers in the area of sugars and health gathered at the European Nutrition Conference (FENS) in 2015 to discuss these controversies and provide evidence-based science. The purpose of the current article ...

Appetite-regulating hormones in early life and relationships with type of feeding and body composition in healthy term infants

Introduction Body composition in early life influences development of obesity during childhood and beyond. Appetite-regulating hormones (ARH) play a role in regulation of food intake and might thus influence body composition in later life. Studies on associations between ARH and body composition in early life are limited. Methods In 197 healthy term infants, we measured serum ...

Increased plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are associated with decreased postprandial energy expenditure after modern Japanese meals

Purpose The nutritional changes that have accompanied the modernization of Japanese dietary patterns have led to significant increases in the number of people who are overweight or obese. This study aimed to clarify the effects of these nutritional changes on postprandial energy expenditure and the release of metabolism-regulating hormones. Methods The total daily energy content ...

Hyperglycemia-associated alterations in cellular signaling and dysregulated mitochondrial bioenergetics in human metabolic disorders

Purpose The severity of untreated or refractory diabetes mellitus has been functionally linked to elevated concentrations of free plasma glucose, clinically defined as hyperglycemia. Operationally, the pathophysiological presentations of prolonged hyperglycemia may be categorized within insulin-dependent and insulin-independent, type 1 and type 2 diabetic phenotypes, respectively. ...

Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

Objective Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older. ...

Vitamin D3 supplementation using an oral spray solution resolves deficiency but has no effect on VO2 max in Gaelic footballers: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Purpose Vitamin D inadequacy is a global health concern in athletes as well as the general population. Whilst the role of vitamin D in skeletal health is well defined, there remains uncertainty over whether vitamin D supplementation has an added benefit beyond bone health. Methods This randomised placebo-controlled trial in healthy male and female Gaelic footballers (n = 42) ...

Impact of phenolic-rich olive leaf extract on blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers: a randomised controlled trial

Purpose Dietary polyphenols have been demonstrated to favourably modify a number of cardiovascular risk markers such as blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and plasma lipids. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial to investigate the effects of a phenolic-rich olive leaf extract (OLE) on BP and a number of associated vascular and metabolic ...

Nutrient reference value: non-communicable disease endpoints—a conference report

Nutrition is complex—and seemingly getting more complicated. Most consumers are familiar with “essential nutrients,” e.g., vitamins and minerals, and more recently protein and important amino acids. These essential nutrients have nutrient reference values, referred to as dietary reference intakes (DRIs) developed by consensus committees of scientific experts convened by the ...

The mediation effect of individual eating behaviours on the relationship between socioeconomic status and dietary quality in children: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Purpose Although it has been suggested that socioeconomic status is associated with dietary quality, the possible mediation effects of eating behaviours on dietary quality are unclear. Thus, we investigated the causal chain by which socioeconomic status influences the quality of the diets consumed by children through their eating behaviours using data from the Korean National ...

Dietary polyphenols are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Polish adults of the HAPIEE study

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between total and individual classes and subclasses of dietary polyphenol intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe cohort study. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey including 8821 adults (51.4 % female) was ...

A nutrient profiling system for the (re)formulation of a global food and beverage portfolio

Purpose To describe the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) developed to guide the reformulation of Nestlé products, and the results of its application in the USA and France. Design The NNPS is a category-specific system that calculates nutrient targets per serving as consumed, based on age-adjusted dietary guidelines. Products are aggregated into 32 food categories. The ...

The plasma bioavailability of nitrate and betanin from Beta vulgaris rubra in humans

Purpose To evaluate the plasma bioavailability of betanin and nitric oxide (NOx) after consuming beetroot juice (BTJ) and whole beetroot (BF). BTJ and BF were also analysed for antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content (TPC) and betalain content. Methods Ten healthy males consumed either 250 ml of BTJ, 300 g of BF or a placebo drink, in a randomised, crossover design. Venous plasma ...