Neural Plasticity

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/

List of Papers (Total 108)

Vision After Early-Onset Lesions of the Occipital Cortex: II. Physiological Studies

In one of two patients (MS and FJ) with bilateral, early-onset lesion of the primary visual cortex, Kiper et al. (2002) observed a considerable degree of functional recovery. To clarify the physiological mechanisms involved in the recovery, we used fMRI and quantitative EEG to study both patients. The fMRI investigations indicated that in both patients, isolated islands of the...

Adrenal Medullary Autografts in Anterior Eye Chamber, Lateral Ventricle and Striatum of Adult Rats: A Long Term Study

The neurobiological basis for the short-term recovery in Parkinson's patients and experimental animals grafted with adrenal medulla is not yet clear. Structural details of the grafted chromaffin cells are also not available. In the present study, autografts of adrenal medulla in the anterior eye chamber, lateral ventricle and striatum of adult rats were studied for 360 days...

Minor Immunoreactivity in GDNF-, BDNF-, or NT-3-Treated Substantia Nigra Allografts

Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Little is known, however, about the possible immune sequelae of GDNF exposure or of exposure to other putative trophic factors. To address these questions, pieces of mesencephalic tissue, substantia nigra, from 15-day-old donor embryos were transplanted into the anterior chamber of...

Antidepressant Effects of Probucol on Early-Symptomatic YAC128 Transgenic Mice for Huntington’s Disease

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide expansion in the HD gene, resulting in an extended polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin. HD is traditionally viewed as a movement disorder, but cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms also contribute to the clinical presentation. Depression is one of the most common...

Adult Gross Motor Learning and Sleep: Is There a Mutual Benefit?

Posttraining consolidation, also known as offline learning, refers to neuroplastic processes and systemic reorganization by which newly acquired skills are converted from an initially transient state into a more permanent state. An extensive amount of research on cognitive and fine motor tasks has shown that sleep is able to enhance these processes, resulting in more stable...

Direct Electrophysiological Mapping of Shape-Induced Affective Perception

Visual information may convey different affective valences and induce our brain into different affective perceptions. Many studies have found that unpleasant stimuli could produce stronger emotional effects than pleasant stimuli could. Although there has been a notion that triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive, there has been no systematic study to map the...

The Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anomia Recovery following Personalized Observation, Execution, and Mental Imagery Therapy: A Proof of Concept

The impact of sensorimotor strategies on aphasia recovery has rarely been explored. This paper reports on the efficacy of personalized observation, execution, and mental imagery (POEM) therapy, a new approach designed to integrate sensorimotor and language-based strategies to treat verb anomia, a frequent aphasia sign. Two participants with verb anomia were followed up in a pre...

Postnatal Development of Microglia-Like Cells in Mouse Cochlea

Microglial cells are involved in surveillance and cleaning of the central nervous system. Recently, microglial-like cells (MLC) have been found in an adult cochlea and investigated for their role in cochlear inflammation. The presence and potential roles of MLCs during the development of the cochlea, however, remain unclear. In this study, immunostaining was performed using the...

Role of Adiponectin in Central Nervous System Disorders

Adiponectin, the most abundant plasma adipokine, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin also possesses insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and vasodilatory properties which may influence central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Although initially not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier, adiponectin enters the...

Effects of Temporary Functional Deafferentation in Chronic Stroke Patients: Who Profits More?

Temporary functional deafferentation (TFD) by an anesthetic cream on the stroke-affected forearm was shown to improve sensorimotor abilities of stroke patients. The present study investigated different predictors for sensorimotor improvements during TFD and indicated outcome differences between patients grouped in subcortical lesions only and lesions with any cortical involvement...

Adrenal Medullary Autografts in Anterior Eye Chamber, Lateral Ventricle and Striatum of Adult Rats: A Long Term Study

The neurobiological basis for the short-term recovery in Parkinson's patients and experimental animals grafted with adrenal medulla is not yet clear. Structural details of the grafted chromaffin cells are also not available. In the present study, autografts of adrenal medulla in the anterior eye chamber, lateral ventricle and striatum of adult rats were studied for 360 days...

Motor Deficits Are Produced By Removing Some Cortical Transplants Grafted Into Injured Sensorimotor Cortex of Neonatal Rats

Fetal frontal cortex was transplanted into cavities formed in the right, motor cortex of neonatal rats. As adults, the animals were trained to press two levers in rapid succession with their left forelimb to receive food rewards. Once they had reached an optimal level of performance, the effect of removing their transplants was assessed. Surgical removal of transplants...

Viable Adrenal Medullary Transplants in Non-Human Primates: Increasing the Number of Grafts

The robust survival of stereotaxic adrenal medullary autografts in monkey brain parenchyma depends heavily on technique/11/. One aspect of technique critical for clinical applications of CNS grafting is the problem of spreading treatment effects throughout large regions in a primate brain. Stereotaxic placement of a large number of grafts, which would address this problem, would...

Factors Determining the Restoration of Circadian Behavior by Hypothalamic Transplants

The expression of locomotor activity by golden hamsters is temporally controlled by circadian oscillators contained within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). A genetic mutation has been found that alters the freerunning period of the locomotor activity rhythm from the wild-type value of ~24 hours to ~20 hours in homozygous mutants. It has been shown previously that a transplant...

CREB Activation Mediates Plasticity in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

Activation of cyclic AMP dependent kinase is believed to mediate slow onset, long-term potentiation (LTP) in central neurons. Cyclic- AMP activates a cascade of molecular events leading to phosphorylation of the nuclear cAMP responsive element binding protein (pCREB). Whereas a variety of stimuli lead to activation of CREB, the molecular processes downstream of CREB, which may be...

The GABA-Withdrawal Syndrome: A Model of Local Status Epilepticus

The GABA-withdrawal syndrome (GWS) is a model of local status epilepticus following the interruption of a chronic GABA infusion into the rat somatomotor cortex. GWS is characterized by focal epileptic electroencephalographic discharges and associated contralateral myoclonus. In neocorticai slices obtained from GWS rats, most neurons recorded in the GABA-infused area are pyramidal...

Intracerebral Transplants and Memory Dysfunction: Circuitry Repair or Functional Level Setting?

Intracerebral grafting techniques of fetal neural cells have been used essentially with two main types of lesion paradigms, namely damage to long projection systems, in which the source and the target are clearly separate, and damage to neurons that are involved in local circuits within a small (sub)region of the brain. With the’first lesion paradigm, grafts placed homotopically...

Effects of Early Training and Nicotine Treatment on the Performance of Male NMRI Mice in the Water Maze

This research aimed to evaluate the effect of nicotine treatment and prior training on a spatial learning task in differently aged NMRI male mice. In a longitudinal study, mice were randomly assigned to one of 14 experimental groups receiving different combinations of chronically injected nicotine (0.35 mg/kg) administered for 10 days (5 days before and during 5 days acquisition...

Genetic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

In the current minireview, we focus on genetic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because various excellent, up-to-date reviews, special issues, and reliable websites are already dedicated to the genetics of Alzheimer's disease in general and of animal models in particular, this review is not meant to be comprehensive. Rather, we aim to steer the Alzheimer's novice through...

Reorganization of the Action Observation Network and Sensory-Motor System in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: An fMRI Study

Little is known about the action observation network (AON) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Using fMRI, we aimed to explore AON and sensory-motor network (SMN) in UCP children and compare them to typically developed (TD) children and analyse the relationship between AON (re-)organization and several neurophysiological and clinical measures. Twelve UCP children...

Environmental Enrichment Induces Changes in Long-Term Memory for Social Transmission of Food Preference in Aged Mice through a Mechanism Associated with Epigenetic Processes

Decline in declarative learning and memory performance is a typical feature of normal aging processes. Exposure of aged animals to an enriched environment (EE) counteracts this decline, an effect correlated with reduction of age-related changes in hippocampal dendritic branching, spine density, neurogenesis, gliogenesis, and neural plasticity, including its epigenetic...