Neural Plasticity

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/

List of Papers (Total 736)

Vision After Early-Onset Lesions of the Occipital Cortex: II. Physiological Studies

In one of two patients (MS and FJ) with bilateral, early-onset lesion of the primary visual cortex, Kiper et al. (2002) observed a considerable degree of functional recovery. To clarify the physiological mechanisms involved in the recovery, we used fMRI and quantitative EEG to study both patients. The fMRI investigations indicated that in both patients, isolated islands of the...

Adrenal Medullary Autografts in Anterior Eye Chamber, Lateral Ventricle and Striatum of Adult Rats: A Long Term Study

The neurobiological basis for the short-term recovery in Parkinson's patients and experimental animals grafted with adrenal medulla is not yet clear. Structural details of the grafted chromaffin cells are also not available. In the present study, autografts of adrenal medulla in the anterior eye chamber, lateral ventricle and striatum of adult rats were studied for 360 days...

Neurotransmitter Receptors in Fetal Tissue Transplants: Expression and Functional Significance

Numerous studies have examined receptor expression in neural transplants and their possible role in transplant-induced functional recovery from lesion-induced deficits. Herein we attempt to summarize the results of these studies, especially those from studies involving striatal transplants. Autoradiographic studies indicate that dopamine D1 and D2, muscarinic, cholinergic, 5-HT2...

Regional Differences of Serotonin-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in the Chicken Spinal Cord With Development and Aging

Previous studies in our laboratory /3,17/ have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) appears to have a trophic-like effect in enhancing synapse formation and maintenance in both the developing and the adult central nervous system. In the present study, we focused on age-related changes in the density of the axosomatic and axodendritic synapses and the number of 5-HT-positive fibers...

Minor Immunoreactivity in GDNF-, BDNF-, or NT-3-Treated Substantia Nigra Allografts

Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Little is known, however, about the possible immune sequelae of GDNF exposure or of exposure to other putative trophic factors. To address these questions, pieces of mesencephalic tissue, substantia nigra, from 15-day-old donor embryos were transplanted into the anterior chamber of...

Age-Related Decrease in the Schaffer Collateral-Evoked EPSP in Awake, Freely, Behaving Rats

Synaptic response size in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in aged rats is reduced for a given stimulus intensity, compared with that elicited in young rats. Consistent with the in vitro findings of reduced Schaffer collateral-evoked CA1 EPSPs in old rats, the population currents evoked to iontophoretically applied AMPA are also smaller relative to the presynaptic fiber...

Task- and Time-Dependent Memory Enhancement by Dehydroepiandosterone in Day-Old Chicks

We have previously reported the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) in the dayold- chick brain, and a role for it in enhanced memory formation. Here we confirm that intracerebral injections of DHEA 5 min before training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 hours after training. Recall per se on an appetitive visual categorization task was not altered by...

Antidepressant Effects of Probucol on Early-Symptomatic YAC128 Transgenic Mice for Huntington’s Disease

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide expansion in the HD gene, resulting in an extended polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin. HD is traditionally viewed as a movement disorder, but cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms also contribute to the clinical presentation. Depression is one of the most common...

Adult Gross Motor Learning and Sleep: Is There a Mutual Benefit?

Posttraining consolidation, also known as offline learning, refers to neuroplastic processes and systemic reorganization by which newly acquired skills are converted from an initially transient state into a more permanent state. An extensive amount of research on cognitive and fine motor tasks has shown that sleep is able to enhance these processes, resulting in more stable...

Direct Electrophysiological Mapping of Shape-Induced Affective Perception

Visual information may convey different affective valences and induce our brain into different affective perceptions. Many studies have found that unpleasant stimuli could produce stronger emotional effects than pleasant stimuli could. Although there has been a notion that triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive, there has been no systematic study to map the...

The Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anomia Recovery following Personalized Observation, Execution, and Mental Imagery Therapy: A Proof of Concept

The impact of sensorimotor strategies on aphasia recovery has rarely been explored. This paper reports on the efficacy of personalized observation, execution, and mental imagery (POEM) therapy, a new approach designed to integrate sensorimotor and language-based strategies to treat verb anomia, a frequent aphasia sign. Two participants with verb anomia were followed up in a pre...

Postnatal Development of Microglia-Like Cells in Mouse Cochlea

Microglial cells are involved in surveillance and cleaning of the central nervous system. Recently, microglial-like cells (MLC) have been found in an adult cochlea and investigated for their role in cochlear inflammation. The presence and potential roles of MLCs during the development of the cochlea, however, remain unclear. In this study, immunostaining was performed using the...

Role of Adiponectin in Central Nervous System Disorders

Adiponectin, the most abundant plasma adipokine, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin also possesses insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and vasodilatory properties which may influence central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Although initially not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier, adiponectin enters the...

Effects of Temporary Functional Deafferentation in Chronic Stroke Patients: Who Profits More?

Temporary functional deafferentation (TFD) by an anesthetic cream on the stroke-affected forearm was shown to improve sensorimotor abilities of stroke patients. The present study investigated different predictors for sensorimotor improvements during TFD and indicated outcome differences between patients grouped in subcortical lesions only and lesions with any cortical involvement...

Fetal Medial Habenula Transplants: Innervation of the Rat Interpeduncular Nucleus

The effects of donor age and site of placement on the survival of fetal medial habenula (MH) transplants into adult rats hosts were examined. The innervation of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) in such cases was also examined. Explants of MH consisting of the medial-dorsal lip of the third ventricle were held in vitro for 1—2 days. Colloidal gold conjugated to wheat germ...

Adrenal Medullary Autografts in Anterior Eye Chamber, Lateral Ventricle and Striatum of Adult Rats: A Long Term Study

The neurobiological basis for the short-term recovery in Parkinson's patients and experimental animals grafted with adrenal medulla is not yet clear. Structural details of the grafted chromaffin cells are also not available. In the present study, autografts of adrenal medulla in the anterior eye chamber, lateral ventricle and striatum of adult rats were studied for 360 days...

Motor Deficits Are Produced By Removing Some Cortical Transplants Grafted Into Injured Sensorimotor Cortex of Neonatal Rats

Fetal frontal cortex was transplanted into cavities formed in the right, motor cortex of neonatal rats. As adults, the animals were trained to press two levers in rapid succession with their left forelimb to receive food rewards. Once they had reached an optimal level of performance, the effect of removing their transplants was assessed. Surgical removal of transplants...

Analysis of an Experimental Cortical Network: ii) Connections of Visual Areas 17 and 18 After Neonatal Injections of Ibotenic Acid

Lesions of cortical areas 17 and 18 were produced in newborn kittens by local injections of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid. In the adult this results in a microcortex which consists of superficial layers I, II and III, in the absence of granular and infragranular layers. Horseradish peroxidase, alone or wheat germ agglutinin conjugated, was injected in the microcortex or in the...

Viable Adrenal Medullary Transplants in Non-Human Primates: Increasing the Number of Grafts

The robust survival of stereotaxic adrenal medullary autografts in monkey brain parenchyma depends heavily on technique/11/. One aspect of technique critical for clinical applications of CNS grafting is the problem of spreading treatment effects throughout large regions in a primate brain. Stereotaxic placement of a large number of grafts, which would address this problem, would...