Neural Plasticity

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/

List of Papers (Total 869)

Vision After Early-Onset Lesions of the Occipital Cortex: II. Physiological Studies

In one of two patients (MS and FJ) with bilateral, early-onset lesion of the primary visual cortex, Kiper et al. (2002) observed a considerable degree of functional recovery. To clarify the physiological mechanisms involved in the recovery, we used fMRI and quantitative EEG to study both patients. The fMRI investigations indicated that in both patients, isolated islands of the...

Adrenal Medullary Autografts in Anterior Eye Chamber, Lateral Ventricle and Striatum of Adult Rats: A Long Term Study

The neurobiological basis for the short-term recovery in Parkinson's patients and experimental animals grafted with adrenal medulla is not yet clear. Structural details of the grafted chromaffin cells are also not available. In the present study, autografts of adrenal medulla in the anterior eye chamber, lateral ventricle and striatum of adult rats were studied for 360 days...

Effects of Adrenal Medulla and Sciatic Nerve Co-Grafts in Rats with Unilateral Substantia Nigra Lesions

Major limitations of adrenal medulla transplantation in animal models of Parkinson's disease have been the relatively small behavioral effects and the poor or inconsistent graft survival. Transplantation of fragments of sural nerve in combination with adrenal medulla has been reported to increase the survival of chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla grafts in primates. In the...

Neurotransmitter Receptors in Fetal Tissue Transplants: Expression and Functional Significance

Numerous studies have examined receptor expression in neural transplants and their possible role in transplant-induced functional recovery from lesion-induced deficits. Herein we attempt to summarize the results of these studies, especially those from studies involving striatal transplants. Autoradiographic studies indicate that dopamine D1 and D2, muscarinic, cholinergic, 5-HT2...

Regional Differences of Serotonin-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in the Chicken Spinal Cord With Development and Aging

Previous studies in our laboratory /3,17/ have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) appears to have a trophic-like effect in enhancing synapse formation and maintenance in both the developing and the adult central nervous system. In the present study, we focused on age-related changes in the density of the axosomatic and axodendritic synapses and the number of 5-HT-positive fibers...

Minor Immunoreactivity in GDNF-, BDNF-, or NT-3-Treated Substantia Nigra Allografts

Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Little is known, however, about the possible immune sequelae of GDNF exposure or of exposure to other putative trophic factors. To address these questions, pieces of mesencephalic tissue, substantia nigra, from 15-day-old donor embryos were transplanted into the anterior chamber of...

Functional and Anatomic Correlates of Two Frequently Observed Temporal Lobe Seizure-Onset Patterns

Intracranial depth electrode EEG records of 478 seizures, recorded in 68 patients undergoing diagnostic monitoring with depth electrodes, were evaluated to investigate the correlates of electrographic onset patterns in patients with temporal lobe seizures. The seizure onsets in 78% of these patients were identified as either hypersynchronous onsets, beginning with low-frequency...

Age-Related Decrease in the Schaffer Collateral-Evoked EPSP in Awake, Freely, Behaving Rats

Synaptic response size in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in aged rats is reduced for a given stimulus intensity, compared with that elicited in young rats. Consistent with the in vitro findings of reduced Schaffer collateral-evoked CA1 EPSPs in old rats, the population currents evoked to iontophoretically applied AMPA are also smaller relative to the presynaptic fiber...

Physiological and Morphological Characterization of Organotypic Cocultures of the Chick Forebrain Area MNH and its Main Input Area DMA/DMP

Cocultures of the learning-relevant forebrain region mediorostrai neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and its main glutamatergic input area nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami/posterior thalami were morphologically and physiologically characterized. Synaptic contacts of thalamic fibers were lightand electron-microscopically detected on MNH neurons by applying the...

Task- and Time-Dependent Memory Enhancement by Dehydroepiandosterone in Day-Old Chicks

We have previously reported the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) in the dayold- chick brain, and a role for it in enhanced memory formation. Here we confirm that intracerebral injections of DHEA 5 min before training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 hours after training. Recall per se on an appetitive visual categorization task was not altered by...

Dysfunctions in Dopamine Systems and ADHD: Evidence From Animals and Modeling

Animal models are useful for characterizing neural substrates of neuropsychiatric disorders. Several models have been proposed for the study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The models can be divided into various groups: (i) genetically derived hyperactivity/ inattention, (ii) animal models showing symptoms after pharmacological intervention, and (iii) those...

A Chronic Implant to Record Electroretinogram, Visual Evoked Potentials and Oscillatory Potentials in Awake, Freely Moving Rats for Pharmacological Studies

Electroretinogram (ERG), widely used to study the pharmacological effects of drugs in animal models (e.g., diabetic retinopathy), is usually recorded in anesthetized rats. We report here a novel simple method to obtain chronic implantation of electrodes for simultaneous recording at the retinal and cortical levels in freely moving, unanesthetized animals. We recorded cortical...

Multi-Joint Dynamics and the Development of Movement Control

The movement control of articulated limbs in humans has been explained in terms of equilibrium points and moving equilibrium points or virtual trajectories. One hypothesis is that the nervous system controls multi-segment limbs by simply planning in terms of these equilibrium points and trajectories. The present paper describes a planar computer simulation of an articulated three...

A Critical Review of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy and Forced Use in Children With Hemiplegia

Hemiplegia is a physical impairment that can occur in childhood following head trauma, cerebral vascular accident or transient ischemic attack (stroke), brain tumor, or congenital or perinatal injury. One of the most disabling symptoms of hemiplegia is unilaterally impaired hand and arm function. Sensory and motor impairments in children with hemiplegia compromise movement...