Journal of Ethology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10164

List of Papers (Total 46)

Assessing personality in San Joaquin kit fox in situ: efficacy of field-based experimental methods and implications for conservation management

Utilisation of animal personality has potential benefit for conservation management. Due to logistics of robust behavioural evaluation in situ, the majority of studies on wild animals involve taking animals into captivity for testing, potentially compromising results. Three in situ tests for evaluation of boldness in San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) were developed ...

Mesopredator behavioral response to olfactory signals of an apex predator

Olfactory signals constitute an important mechanism in interspecific interactions, but little is known regarding their role in communication between predator species. We analyzed the behavioral responses of a mesopredator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), to an olfactory cue (scat) of an apex predator, the lynx (Lynx lynx) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland, using video camera ...

Agonistic display or courtship behavior? A review of contests over mating opportunity in butterflies

Male butterflies compete over mating opportunities. Two types of contest behavior are reported. Males of various butterfly species compete over a mating territory via aerial interactions until one of the two contestants retreats. Males of other butterfly species fly around larval food plants to find receptive females. Males of some species among the latter type can find a ...

Do weaponless males of the hermit crab Pagurus minutus give up contests without escalation? Behavior of intruders that lack their major cheliped in male–male contests

In dyadic contests, theoretical studies have predicted that weaker contestants are less likely to engage in fights to minimize the cost of aggression. Since the major cheliped of decapod crustaceans is critically important as a weapon, contestants without a major cheliped should be more likely to give up the contests. We therefore examined whether loss of the major cheliped by the ...

Behavioural interactions between the lizard Takydromus tachydromoides and the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia suggest reciprocal predation between them

The Japanese lacertid lizard Takydromus tachydromoides and the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia are sympatric generalist predators feeding on similar prey. To confirm reciprocal predation between them, we observed the behavioural interactions between the lizards and the mantises of different sizes in a laboratory condition. The lizards caught small mantises (from first to fifth ...

Referential calls coordinate multi-species mobbing in a forest bird community

Japanese great tits (Parus minor) use a sophisticated system of anti-predator communication when defending their offspring: they produce different mobbing calls for different nest predators (snake versus non-snake predators) and thereby convey this information to conspecifics (i.e. functionally referential call system). The present playback experiments revealed that these calls ...

Communication stations: cameras reveal river otter (Lontra canadensis) behavior and activity patterns at latrines

Little is known about the behaviors river otters (Lontra canadensis) commonly exhibit when visiting latrine sites. By use of video data we constructed an ethogram to describe and quantify latrine behaviors. The most common behaviors were standing (20.5 %) and sniffing (18.6 %), lending support to the hypothesis that latrines are used for olfactory communication. Surprisingly, ...

Object play in thick-toed geckos during a space experiment

Play behavior was observed in thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY 1864) during a 30-day orbital experiment on the unmanned spacecraft “BION-M” No. 1. The geckos wore ornamented colored collars which made it possible to track the behavior of individual animals on video recordings. The object of the play behavior was a collar that one of the geckos had managed to remove ...

Who bullies whom at a garden feeder? Interspecific agonistic interactions of small passerines during a cold winter

Interspecific agonistic interactions are important selective factors for maintaining ecological niches of different species, but their outcome is difficult to predict a priori. Here, we examined the direction and intensity of interspecific interactions in an assemblage of small passerines at a garden feeder, focussing on three finch species of various body sizes. We found that ...

Distance-dependent switching of anti-predator behavior of frogs from immobility to fleeing

To avoid predation, many animals are required to appropriately switch between immobility for crypsis and fleeing for escape. We conducted two staged-encounter experiments using a frog and a snake to examine factors that affect the occurrence of immobility and fleeing, and to evaluate the efficiency of them. The first experiment demonstrated that frogs initially exhibit immobility, ...

Paternal care behaviors of Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus in natural populations

Parental care among salamanders is typically provided by females. A rare case of parental care by male salamanders appears to occur in Cryptobranchidae. Yet, paternal behaviors have rarely been reported from natural populations of any Cryptobranchid salamanders, and their adaptive significance is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine paternal care behaviors in a ...

Rapid development of tool use as a strategy to predate invasive land snails

There are few examples of facultative tool use in animals under natural conditions. We provide the first description of tool use in great antshrikes (Taraba major), which were observed using stone anvils to break the shells of the land snail (Achatina fulica). This behavior is almost certainly of extremely recent origin given the lack of previous reports of tool use in T. major and ...

Juvenile social play and yearling behavior and reproductive success in female Belding’s ground squirrels

Benefits of play behavior have been described for individuals during the juvenile period; however, it is less clear whether benefits of juvenile play commonly extend beyond the period of juvenile development. I evaluated possible associations between juvenile social play and yearling maternal territorial behavior and reproductive success in female Belding’s ground squirrels ...

Prey size affects the costs and benefits of group predation in nymphs of the predatory stink bug Andrallus spinidens (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

Group predation promotes foraging efficiency because it increases the size of prey that can be killed and improves hunting success compared to solitary predation. However, group predation may increase competition among group members during feeding. Earlier studies have focused on the advantages of group predation, but little is known about the costs and benefits of group predation ...

Variation in female guppy preference for male olfactory and visual traits

Animals often use different sensory systems to assess different sexually selected signals from potential mates. However, the relative importance of different signals on mate choice is not well understood in many animal species. In this study, we examined the relative importance of male olfactory and visual cues on female preference in the guppy Poecilia reticulata. We used ...

Sexual dimorphism and courtship behavior in Drosophila prolongata

Sexual dimorphism is often derived from sexual selection. In sexually dimorphic Drosophila species, exaggerated male structures are used for specific behaviors in male-to-male competition or courtship toward females. In Drosophila prolongata, a member of the melanogaster species group, males have enlarged forelegs whereas females do not. However, the adaptive role of the enlarged ...

Cannibalistic siblicide in praying mantis nymphs (Miomantis caffra)

Inclusive fitness theory predicts that cannibalism should be more likely to arise if close relatives can be avoided, suggesting that cannibalistic species will possess mechanisms for minimizing predation on kin. Juvenile Miomantis caffra are good candidates for the possession of such traits because; (1) groups of siblings hatch together into the same locale, (2) they are aggressive ...

Hidden burrow plugs and their function in the tiger beetle, Cosmodela batesi (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae)

Tiger beetle larvae excavate and live in underground burrows, whose openings they sometimes plug with soil. This study documents the burrow plugging behavior of the tiger beetle, Cosmodela batesi (Fleutiaux), in the field. We also tested the function of burrow plugs in the laboratory. In the field, C. batesi more frequently made a plug when it rained. Most larvae made plugs inside ...

Mother–calf interactions and social behavior development in Commerson’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii)

Mother–calf interactions and the behaviors of mothers during separation from their calves were examined in four Commerson’s dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) mother–calf pairs. Four infants were observed: 56.8 h over 30 days from birth to 263 days of age, 36.9 h over 20 days from birth to 149 days of age, 10.4 h over 3 days from birth to 2 days of age, and 15.0 h over 3 days ...

Preadaptation for parthenogenetic colony foundation in subterranean termites Reticulitermes spp. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

Thelytokous (all-female producing) parthenogenesis, in some cases, involves reproductive advantages against obligate sexual reproduction. However, the completion of parthenogenesis takes multiple steps without the help of males, and thus preadaptation that meets those requirements will be an important factor for the evolution of parthenogenesis. The Japanese subterranean termite, ...

Dynamic decision-making in uncertain environments II. Allais paradox in human behavior

In both animal and human behavioral repertoires, classical expected utility theory is considered a fundamental element of decision making under conditions of uncertainty. This theory has been widely applied to problems of animal behavior and evolutionary game theory, as well as to human economic behavior. The Allais paradox hinges on the expression of avoidance of bankruptcy by ...