Genome Biology

http://genomebiology.com/

List of Papers (Total 5,759)

Widespread activation of antisense transcription of the host genome during herpes simplex virus 1 infection

Herpesviruses can infect a wide range of animal species. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is one of the eight herpesviruses that can infect humans and is prevalent worldwide. Herpesviruses have evolved multiple ways to adapt the infected cells to their needs, but knowledge about these transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications is sparse. Here, we show that HSV-1 induces...

New reference genome sequences of hot pepper reveal the massive evolution of plant disease-resistance genes by retroduplication

Transposable elements are major evolutionary forces which can cause new genome structure and species diversification. The role of transposable elements in the expansion of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich-repeat proteins (NLRs), the major disease-resistance gene families, has been unexplored in plants. We report two high-quality de novo genomes (Capsicum baccatum and C...

The influence of microRNAs and poly(A) tail length on endogenous mRNA–protein complexes

All mRNAs are bound in vivo by proteins to form mRNA–protein complexes (mRNPs), but changes in the composition of mRNPs during posttranscriptional regulation remain largely unexplored. Here, we have analyzed, on a transcriptome-wide scale, how microRNA-mediated repression modulates the associations of the core mRNP components eIF4E, eIF4G, and PABP and of the decay factor DDX6 in...

Comparative epigenomics in the Brassicaceae reveals two evolutionarily conserved modes of PRC2-mediated gene regulation

Polycomb Repressive Complexes 2 (PRC2) are multi-protein chromatin modifiers that are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and play key roles in the regulation of gene expression, notably through the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). Although PRC2-mediated gene regulation has been studied in many organisms, few studies have explored in depth the...

The human lncRNA LINC-PINT inhibits tumor cell invasion through a highly conserved sequence element

It is now obvious that the majority of cellular transcripts do not code for proteins, and a significant subset of them are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Many lncRNAs show aberrant expression in cancer, and some of them have been linked to cell transformation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and it is unknown how the sequences of lncRNA dictate their...

Dynamic changes in eIF4F-mRNA interactions revealed by global analyses of environmental stress responses

Translation factors eIF4E and eIF4G form eIF4F, which interacts with the messenger RNA (mRNA) 5′ cap to promote ribosome recruitment and translation initiation. Variations in the association of eIF4F with individual mRNAs likely contribute to differences in translation initiation frequencies between mRNAs. As translation initiation is globally reprogrammed by environmental...

McEnhancer: predicting gene expression via semi-supervised assignment of enhancers to target genes

Transcriptional enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression. While genomic assays can identify putative enhancers en masse, assigning target genes is a complex challenge. We devised a machine learning approach, McEnhancer, which links target genes to putative enhancers via a semi-supervised learning algorithm that predicts gene expression patterns based on enriched...

Editing inducer elements increases A-to-I editing efficiency in the mammalian transcriptome

Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has been shown to be an essential event that plays a significant role in neuronal function, as well as innate immunity, in mammals. It requires a structure that is largely double-stranded for catalysis but little is known about what determines editing efficiency and specificity in vivo. We have previously shown that some editing sites...

Systematic identification of regulatory variants associated with cancer risk

Most cancer risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are noncoding and it is challenging to assess their functional impacts. To systematically identify the SNPs that affect gene expression by modulating activities of distal regulatory elements, we adapt the self-transcribing active regulatory region sequencing...

Epitranscriptomic influences on development and disease

RNA contains over 150 types of chemical modifications. Although many of these chemical modifications were discovered several decades ago, their functions were not immediately apparent. Discoveries of RNA demethylases, along with advances in mass spectrometry and high-throughput sequencing techniques, have caused research into RNA modifications to progress at an accelerated rate...

Evidence of reduced recombination rate in human regulatory domains

Recombination rate is non-uniformly distributed across the human genome. The variation of recombination rate at both fine and large scales cannot be fully explained by DNA sequences alone. Epigenetic factors, particularly DNA methylation, have recently been proposed to influence the variation in recombination rate. We study the relationship between recombination rate and gene...

Substantial contribution of genetic variation in the expression of transcription factors to phenotypic variation revealed by eRD-GWAS

There are significant limitations in existing methods for the genome-wide identification of genes whose expression patterns affect traits. The transcriptomes of five tissues from 27 genetically diverse maize inbred lines were deeply sequenced to identify genes exhibiting high and low levels of expression variation across tissues or genotypes. Transcription factors are enriched...

The nuclear receptor ERβ engages AGO2 in regulation of gene transcription, RNA splicing and RISC loading

The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and...

Perfectly matched 20-nucleotide guide RNA sequences enable robust genome editing using high-fidelity SpCas9 nucleases

High-fidelity SpCas9 variants (eSpCas9 and SpCas9-HF1) have been engineered to reduce off-target effects. We found that changes in guide RNA length induced significant reductions in the editing activities of SpCas9 variants in plant cells. Single guide RNAs harboring precise, perfectly matched 20-nucleotide guide sequences are necessary for high on-target editing activities of...

Crossing enhanced and high fidelity SpCas9 nucleases to optimize specificity and cleavage

The propensity for off-target activity of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) has been considerably decreased by rationally engineered variants with increased fidelity (eSpCas9; SpCas9-HF1). However, a subset of targets still generate considerable off-target effects. To deal specifically with these targets, we generated new “Highly enhanced Fidelity” nuclease variants...

MetaGen: reference-free learning with multiple metagenomic samples

A major goal of metagenomics is to identify and study the entire collection of microbial species in a set of targeted samples. We describe a statistical metagenomic algorithm that simultaneously identifies microbial species and estimates their abundances without using reference genomes. As a trade-off, we require multiple metagenomic samples, usually ≥10 samples, to get highly...

Alignment-free sequence comparison: benefits, applications, and tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. The strength of these methods makes them particularly useful for next-generation sequencing data processing and analysis. However, many researchers are...

Massive A-to-I RNA editing is common across the Metazoa and correlates with dsRNA abundance

Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification catalyzed by the ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) enzymes, which are ubiquitously expressed among metazoans. Technical requirements have limited systematic mapping of editing sites to a small number of organisms. Thus, the extent of editing across the metazoan lineage is largely unknown...

From structure to function, how bioinformatics help to reveal functions of our genomes

A report on the 13th International Bioinformatics Workshop held in Harbin, China, 5–6 August 2017.

Genomic imprinting beyond DNA methylation: a role for maternal histones

Inheritance of DNA methylation states from gametes determines genomic imprinting in mammals. A new study shows that repressive chromatin in oocytes can also confer imprinting.

Topological organization and dynamic regulation of human tRNA genes during macrophage differentiation

The human genome is hierarchically organized into local and long-range structures that help shape cell-type-specific transcription patterns. Transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (tDNAs), which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) and encode RNA molecules responsible for translation, are dispersed throughout the genome and, in many cases, linearly organized into genomic clusters...

DESMAN: a new tool for de novo extraction of strains from metagenomes

We introduce DESMAN for De novo Extraction of Strains from Metagenomes. Large multi-sample metagenomes are being generated but strain variation results in fragmentary co-assemblies. Current algorithms can bin contigs into metagenome-assembled genomes but are unable to resolve strain-level variation. DESMAN identifies variants in core genes and uses co-occurrence across samples to...

DNA methylation dynamics during early plant life

Cytosine methylation is crucial for gene regulation and silencing of transposable elements in mammals and plants. While this epigenetic mark is extensively reprogrammed in the germline and early embryos of mammals, the extent to which DNA methylation is reset between generations in plants remains largely unknown. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we uncovered distinct DNA methylation...

Comprehensive benchmarking and ensemble approaches for metagenomic classifiers

One of the main challenges in metagenomics is the identification of microorganisms in clinical and environmental samples. While an extensive and heterogeneous set of computational tools is available to classify microorganisms using whole-genome shotgun sequencing data, comprehensive comparisons of these methods are limited. In this study, we use the largest-to-date set of...