Parasites & Vectors

http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/

List of Papers (Total 3,142)

Efficacy of fluralaner against Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats

Background The efficacy of fluralaner for the treatment of Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats was evaluated after oral (dogs) or topical administration (dogs and cats). Twenty-four dogs and sixteen cats were experimentally infested with O. cynotis and randomly allocated to equal sized groups (n = 8/group). Dog groups were treated once, either orally with fluralaner at ...

First molecular identification of Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus granulosus (sensu stricto) G1 revealed in feces of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) from Acre, Brazil

Background Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) (s.l.) and Echinococcus vogeli are causative agents of chronic zoonotic diseases such as cystic and polycystic echinococcosis, respectively. In Brazil, polycystic echinococcosis has a restricted geographical distribution in the North Region, while cystic echinococcosis is observed in the South Region. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) ...

Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats

Background There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This ...

RNAi reveals proteins for metabolism and protein processing associated with Langat virus infection in Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) ISE6 cells

Background Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs) cause thousands of human cases of encephalitis worldwide each year, with some TBF infections progressing to hemorrhagic fever. TBFs are of medical and veterinary importance and strategies to reduce flavivirus transmission by the tick vector may have significant application. Analyses of the proteome of ISE6 cells derived from the black ...

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats in mainland China

Background Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii which can infect all warm-blooded animals. As the most common feline definitive host, cats play a vital role in the transmission of T. gondii. However, national estimates of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in mainland China are lacking, and therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to provide ...

Direct detection of falciparum and non-falciparum malaria DNA from a drop of blood with high sensitivity by the dried-LAMP system

Background Because of the low sensitivity of conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria infections, the actual prevalence of the diseases, especially those caused by non-Plasmodium falciparum (non-Pf) species, in asymptomatic populations remain less defined in countries lacking in well-equipped facilities for accurate diagnoses. Our direct blood dry LAMP system ...

Mathematical modelling of Echinococcus multilocularis abundance in foxes in Zurich, Switzerland

Background In Europe, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main definitive host of Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of a severe disease in humans called alveolar echinococcosis. The distribution of this zoonotic parasite among the fox population is remarkably aggregated with few heavily infected animals harbouring much of the parasite burdens and being responsible ...

Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey

Background As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission. Methods For four consecutive ...

Molecular detection of Rickettsia species in ticks collected from the southwestern provinces of the Republic of Korea

Background Rickettsiae constitute a group of arthropod-borne, Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of diseases ranging from mild to life threatening that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. Methods A total of 6,484 ticks were collected by tick drag from June-October 2013 in the southwestern provinces of the Republic of Korea ...

Exploring the potential of using cattle for malaria vector surveillance and control: a pilot study in western Kenya

Background Malaria vector mosquitoes with exophilic and zoophilic tendencies, or with a high acceptance of alternative blood meal sources when preferred human blood-hosts are unavailable, may help maintain low but constant malaria transmission in areas where indoor vector control has been scaled up. This residual transmission might be addressed by targeting vectors outside the ...

A next-generation microarray further reveals stage-enriched gene expression pattern in the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum

Background Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, and ranks, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as the third most important neglected tropical disease. Schistosomes have several discrete life stages involving dramatic morphological changes during their development, which require subtle gene expression modulations to ...

The ribosomal transcription units of Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui and the use of 28S rDNA sequences for phylogenetic identification of common heterophyids in Vietnam

Background Heterophyidiasis is now a major public health threat in many tropical countries. Species in the trematode family Heterophyidae infecting humans include Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Procerovum varium and Stellantchasmus falcatus. For molecular phylogenetic and systematic studies on trematodes, we need more prospective markers for ...

SLC11A1 polymorphisms and host susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan

Background The vector-borne cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in several regions of Pakistan mainly affecting poor populations. Host genetic factors, particularly SLC11A1 (solute carrier transmembrane protein) within macrophages, play a crucial role in disease pathology and susceptibility. Association of SLC11A1 with cutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is ...

Epidemiology of Mansonella perstans in the middle belt of Ghana

Background Mansonellosis was first reported in Ghana by Awadzi in the 1990s. Co-infections of Mansonella perstans have also been reported in a small cohort of patients with Buruli ulcer and their contacts. However, no study has assessed the exact prevalence of the disease in a larger study population. This study therefore aimed to find out the prevalence of M. perstans infection in ...

Detection of West Nile virus in six mosquito species in synchrony with seroconversion among sentinel chickens in India

Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic flavivirus maintained in mosquito-bird transmission cycle. Although humans are accidental hosts, fatal outcomes following WNV infection have been reported from India. Studies have identified WNV as an important etiological agent causing acute encephalitis syndrome in Assam, Northeast India. While circulation of WNV is evident, the role ...

Regional level risk factors associated with the occurrence of African swine fever in West and East Africa

Background African swine fever (ASF) causes severe socio-economic impacts due to high mortality and trade restrictions. Many risk factors of ASF have been identified at farm level. However, understanding the risk factors, especially wild suid hosts, determining ASF transmission at regional level remains limited. Methods Based on ASF outbreak data in domestic pigs during 2006–2014, ...

Amoebic liver abscess in northern Sri Lanka: first report of immunological and molecular confirmation of aetiology

Background Since 1985, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) has been a public health problem in northern Sri Lanka. Clinicians arrive at a diagnosis based on clinical and ultrasonographic findings, which cannot differentiate pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) from ALA. As the treatment and outcome of the ALA and PLA differs, determining the etiological agent is crucial. Methods All clinically ...

The complete mitochondrial genomes of two freshwater snails provide new protein-coding gene rearrangement models and phylogenetic implications

Background Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences are widely used for species identification and to study the phylogenetic relationships among Gastropoda. However, to date, limited data are available as taxon sampling is narrow. In this study we sequenced the complete mt genomes of the freshwater gastropods Radix swinhoei (Lymnaeidae) and Planorbarius corneus (Planorbidae). Based on ...

Presence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Giardia duodenalis assemblage A and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in captive Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in China: potential for zoonotic transmission

Background Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are the main causal pathogens of gastrointestinal disease. However, there are limited reports about the prevalence of these organisms in captive Eurasian wild boars worldwide. Therefore, we examined the occurrence and identified the species/assemblages/genotypes of these pathogens in captive Eurasian ...

Avian malaria on Madagascar: bird hosts and putative vector mosquitoes of different Plasmodium lineages

Background Avian malaria occurs almost worldwide and is caused by Haemosporida parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon). Vectors such as mosquitoes, hippoboscid flies or biting midges are required for the transmission of these parasites. There are few studies about avian malaria parasites on Madagascar but none about suitable vectors. Methods To identify vectors of ...

Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida

Background Dual attractant toxic sugar baits (D-ATSB) containing two host kairomones, L-lactic (LA) and 1-octen-3-ol (O), and fruit-based attractants were evaluated through olfactory, consumption and mortality, and semi-field experiments to determine if host kairomones could first, enhance attraction of a fruit-based (attractant) toxic sugar bait (ATSB), and second, increase the ...

Functional characterization of Plasmodium berghei PSOP25 during ookinete development and as a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate

Background Plasmodium ookinete surface proteins as post-fertilization target antigens are potential malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidates. Putative secreted ookinete protein 25 (PSOP25) is a highly conserved ookinete surface protein, and has been shown to be a promising novel TBV target. Here, we further investigated the TBV activities of the full-length ...

Lyme disease risk in southern California: abiotic and environmental drivers of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) density and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi

Background Tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, are emerging across the northern hemisphere. In order to manage emerging diseases and predict where emergence will likely occur, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the distribution, abundance and infection prevalence of vector species. In North America, Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease ...

The effect of host age and inoculation dose on infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

Background Infections and clinical cases of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs are found increasingly across Europe, thus rendering knowledge on its infection biology more important. We used red foxes as a carnivore model to examine the effect of host age and infection dose on the establishment of adult A. vasorum in single experimental infections. Methods Fourteen juvenile and ...

Genetic clustering and polymorphism of the merozoite surface protein-3 of Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia

Background The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported to cause significant numbers of human infection in South East Asia. Its merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) is a protein that belongs to a multi-gene family of proteins first found in Plasmodium falciparum. Several studies have evaluated the potential of P. falciparum MSP3 as a potential vaccine candidate. ...