Journal of Gastroenterology

http://link.springer.com/journal/535

List of Papers (Total 270)

Expression of ATF6 as a marker of pre-cancerous atypical change in ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer: a potential role in the management of dysplasia

Background Diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is important in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is often difficult to distinguish LGD from inflammatory regenerative epithelium. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in inflammatory bowel disease and malignancies. We aimed to identify a UPR-related gene that is involved in the development of non-UC and ...

Mechanisms of curcumin-induced gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions

Background Curcumin, a pleiotropic substance used for centuries in traditional medicine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative efficacy against various tumours, but the role of curcumin in gastroprotection is little studied. We determined the effect of curcumin against gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by 75% ethanol and alterations in gastric blood flow ...

Analysis of endoscopic brush samples identified mucosa-associated dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease

Background The mucosa-associated gut microbiota directly modulates epithelial and mucosal function. In this study, we investigated the mucosa-associated microbial community in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), using endoscopic brush samples. Methods A total of 174 mucus samples from 43 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 26 with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 14 non-IBD ...

Determining an optimal clinical dose of elobixibat, a novel inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter, in Japanese patients with chronic constipation: a phase II, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

Background Elobixibat is an oral treatment candidate for chronic constipation with a novel mechanism of action via inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter. We performed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding phase IIb study in Japanese patients with chronic constipation to determine the optimal clinical dose of elobixibat. Methods Japanese patients ...

The tumor-stromal ratio as a strong prognosticator for advanced gastric cancer patients: proposal of a new TSNM staging system

Background Insufficient attention is paid to the underlying tumor microenvironment (TME) evolution, that resulting in tumor heterogeneity and driving differences in cancer aggressiveness and treatment outcomes. The morphological evaluation of the proportion of the stroma at the most invasive part of primary tumor (tumor-stromal ratio, TSR) in cancer is gaining momentum as evidence ...

Complete mucosal healing of distal lesions induced by twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam promoted clinical remission of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation: double-blind, randomized study

Background Budesonide foam is used for the topical treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. This phase III study was performed to confirm mucosal healing and other therapeutic effects of twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis including left-sided colitis and pancolitis. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, ...

Transarterial chemoembolization with miriplatin vs. epirubicin for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomized trial

Background This prospective study investigated the superiority of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with miriplatin over TACE with epirubicin regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Patients with unresectable HCC were randomized 1:1 to receive TACE with miriplatin or epirubicin in lipiodol. The primary endpoint was ...

Effects of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on hepatic function in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: pooled and subgroup analyses of clinical trials

Background We aimed to investigate the efficacy of canagliflozin (based on its effect on liver function and blood glucose levels) and its safety in high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) patients (ALT >30 U/L). Methods This post hoc analysis of canagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients was divided into Study 1 (pooled analysis of 12- and 24-week placebo-controlled, ...

A multicenter, retrospective, observational study of the clinical outcomes and risk factors for relapse of ulcerative colitis at 1 year after leukocytapheresis

Background Extracorporeal leukocytapheresis (LCAP) is effective for inducing remission of ulcerative colitis (UC). This retrospective observational study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome at 1 year and identify risk factors for relapse of UC after LCAP. Methods Patients with active UC treated with LCAP between 2010 and 2012 were enrolled from 54 medical facilities in Japan. ...

The identification of celiac disease in asymptomatic children: the Generation R Study

Background The objective of our study was to assess whether TG2A levels in the healthy childhood population can be predictive of subclinical CD. Methods A total of 4442 children (median age, 6.0 years) participating in a population-based prospective cohort study were screened on serum TG2A. Those with positive TG2A (≥7 U/ml; n = 60, 1.4%) were invited for clinical evaluation ...

Serum HMGB1 concentrations at 4 weeks is a useful predictor of extreme poor prognosis for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy

Background Biomarkers predicting the response to the anticancer treatment and prognosis in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are required. Recently, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was reported to promote HCC progression and be associated with poor prognosis for patients with HCC. The purpose of this study was to assess serum HMGB1 concentrations before and ...

Clinical and microbiological features of infection in alcoholic hepatitis: an international cohort study

Background Previous studies have described the clinical impact of infection in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) but none have comprehensively explored the aetiopathogenesis of infection in this setting. We examined the causes, consequences and treatment of infection in a cohort of patients with AH. Methods We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with AH admitted between 2009 ...

Effect of miglitol on the suppression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development and improvement of the gut environment in a rodent model

Background The gut environment has been considered to play a role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs) delay carbohydrate absorption and may change the gut environment. We considered that the protective effect of α-GIs against NASH development is related to changes in the gut environment and thus investigated the effects of ...

Efficacy and safety of golimumab 52-week maintenance therapy in Japanese patients with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis: a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study-(PURSUIT-J study)

Background The global phase 3 studies of golimumab [PURSUIT-SC and PURSUIT-maintenance (M)], an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) antibody, have demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety as induction and maintenance therapies in patients with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of golimumab as maintenance ...

Four-year maintenance treatment with adalimumab in Japanese patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis

Background The 52-week safety and efficacy of adalimumab in Japanese patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis were demonstrated in a placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial. Data from patients who enrolled in the open-label extension study are presented. Methods Remission and response per the full Mayo score (FMS) and the partial Mayo score (PMS), remission per the ...

Nitric oxide, afferent sensory nerves, and antioxidative enzymes in the mechanism of protection mediated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer and sodium hydrosulfide against aspirin-induced gastric damage

Background Aspirin exerts side effects within the gastrointestinal tract. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been implicated in gastroprotection but the mechanism of beneficial action of these gaseous mediators against aspirin-induced damage has not been fully studied. We determined the involvement of afferent sensory neurons, calcitonin-gene-related peptide ...

Molecular alterations in colorectal adenomas and intramucosal adenocarcinomas defined by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays

Background We examined colorectal adenomas and intramucosal adenocarcinomas (IMAs) to develop a genome-wide overview of copy number alterations (CNAs) during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methods We analysed CNAs using a high-resolution SNP array of isolated tumour glands obtained from 55 colorectal adenomas (35 low-grade adenomas and 20 high-grade adenomas) and 30 IMAs. Next, we ...

Action and function of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the progression from chronic hepatitis C to hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide but the mechanistic basis as to how chronic HCV infection furthers the HCC process remains only poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that HCV core and nonstructural proteins provoke activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and the evidence supporting a ...

Intestinal stem cell transplantation

Organoid technologies to expand intestinal epithelial cells are gaining increasing attention as a useful tool to investigate many aspects of intestinal epithelial biology and pathology. One important application of organoid systems would be to use intestinal epithelial cells expanded in culture for following transplantation experiments. In this article, we present a brief overview ...