Current Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/294

List of Papers (Total 93)

Mms1 is an assistant for regulating G-quadruplex DNA structures

The preservation of genome stability is fundamental for every cell. Genomic integrity is constantly challenged. Among those challenges are also non-canonical nucleic acid structures. In recent years, scientists became aware of the impact of G-quadruplex (G4) structures on genome stability. It has been shown that folded G4-DNA structures cause changes in the cell, such as ...

SMC complexes orchestrate the mitotic chromatin interaction landscape

Chromatin is a very long DNA–protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of ...

pH homeostasis in yeast; the phosphate perspective

Recent research further clarified the molecular mechanisms that link nutrient signaling and pH homeostasis with the regulation of growth and survival of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The central nutrient signaling kinases PKA, TORC1, and Sch9 are intimately associated to pH homeostasis, presumably allowing them to concert far-reaching phenotypical repercussions of ...

Functional genomics analysis reveals the biosynthesis pathways of important cellular components (alginate and fucoidan) of Saccharina

Although alginate and fucoidan are unique cellular components and have important biological significance in brown algae, and many possible involved genes are present in brown algal genomes, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have not been fully revealed. Both polysaccharides may play important roles in the evolution of multicellular brown algae, but specific and in-depth ...

The life of [PSI]

The AAA+ disaggregase Hsp104 is essential for the maintenance and inheritance of nearly all known prions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uniquely for [PSI +], the prion form of the Sup35 protein, there seem to be two activities, involving differing co-chaperones, by which Hsp104 affects the inheritance of [PSI +], the prion form of the Sup35 protein. Each pathway is also ...

Express yourself: how PP2A-B55Pab1 helps TORC1 talk to TORC2

The control of cell fate, growth and proliferation in response to nitrogen availability is a tightly controlled process, with the two TOR complexes (TORC1 and TORC2) and their effectors playing a central role. PP2A-B55Pab1 has recently been shown to be a key element in this response in fission yeast, where it regulates cell cycle progression and sexual differentiation. Importantly, ...

RNA-based regulation in type I toxin–antitoxin systems and its implication for bacterial persistence

Bacterial dormancy is a valuable survival strategy upon challenging environmental conditions. Dormant cells tolerate the consequences of high stress levels and may re-populate the environment upon return to favorable conditions. Antibiotic-tolerant bacteria—termed persisters—regularly cause relapsing infections, increase the likelihood of antibiotic resistance, and, therefore, earn ...

A mutated dph3 gene causes sensitivity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells to cytotoxic agents

Dph3 is involved in diphthamide modification of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF2 and in Elongator-mediated modifications of tRNAs, where a 5-methoxycarbonyl-methyl moiety is added to wobble uridines. Lack of such modifications affects protein synthesis due to inaccurate translation of mRNAs at ribosomes. We have discovered that integration of markers at the msh3 ...

NMD monitors translational fidelity 24/7

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is generally thought to be a eukaryotic mRNA surveillance pathway tasked with the elimination of transcripts harboring an in-frame premature termination codon (PTC). As presently conceived, NMD acting in this manner minimizes the likelihood that potentially toxic polypeptide fragments would accumulate in the cytoplasm. This notion is to be ...

Diverse roles of Dpb2, the non-catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ε

Timely progression of living cells through the cell cycle is precisely regulated. This involves a series of phosphorylation events which are regulated by various cyclins, activated in coordination with the cell cycle progression. Phosphorylated proteins govern cell growth, division as well as duplication of the genetic material and transcriptional activation of genes involved in ...

Starvation signals in yeast are integrated to coordinate metabolic reprogramming and stress response to ensure longevity

Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to ...

Connecting virulence pathways to cell-cycle progression in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

Proliferation and host evasion are critical processes to understand at a basic biological level for improving infectious disease treatment options. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immunocompromised individuals by proliferating in cerebrospinal fluid. Current antifungal drugs target “virulence factors” for disease, such as components of ...

The functions of the multi-tasking Pfh1Pif1 helicase

Approximately, 1% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes encode for helicases, which make the number of helicases expressed in the cell considerably high. Helicases are motor proteins that participate in many central aspects of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and based on their helicase motif conservation, they are divided into different helicase families. The Pif1 family of ...

Does DNA replication direct locus-specific recombination during host immune evasion by antigenic variation in the African trypanosome?

All pathogens must survive host immune attack and, amongst the survival strategies that have evolved, antigenic variation is a particularly widespread reaction to thwart adaptive immunity. Though the reactions that underlie antigenic variation are highly varied, recombination by gene conversion is a widespread approach to immune survival in bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. In ...

Smc5/6 complex regulates Sgs1 recombination functions

The family of RecQ helicases is evolutionary conserved from bacteria to humans and play key roles in genome stability. The budding yeast RecQ helicase Sgs1 has been implicated in several key processes during the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination as part of the STR complex (Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1). Limited information on how is Sgs1 recruited and regulated at sites of damage ...

Stress sensitivity of a fission yeast strain lacking histidine kinases is rescued by the ectopic expression of Chk1 from Candida albicans

The development of new drugs against the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is compelling and the evolution of relevant bioassays is important to achieve this goal. Promising drug targets are proteins that lack human counterparts which are true for the His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction systems, important for stress sensing in bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the pathogenic ...

A conserved role of the RSC chromatin remodeler in the establishment of nucleosome-depleted regions

The occupancy of nucleosomes governs access to the eukaryotic genomes and results from a combination of biophysical features and the effect of ATP-dependent remodelling complexes. Most promoter regions show a conserved pattern characterized by a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) flanked by nucleosomal arrays. The conserved RSC remodeler was reported to be critical to establish NDR ...

Transcription of the mating-type-regulated lncRNA IRT1 is governed by TORC1 and PKA

Cell fate decisions are controlled by multiple cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors. In budding yeast, the decision to enter gametogenesis or sporulation is dictated by nutrient availability and mating type. Recently, we showed that in diploid cells harbouring opposite mating types (MATa and MATα), the protein kinase A (PKA) and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1) signalling ...

A role for the spindle assembly checkpoint in the DNA damage response

Spontaneous DNA damage poses a continuous threat to genomic integrity. If unchecked, genotoxic insults result in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells. In eukaryotic cells a DNA Damage Response (DDR) detects and responds to genotoxic stress, acting as an anti-cancer barrier in humans. Among other actions, the DDR blocks the segregation of incompletely replicated or ...

The yeast Hsp70 homolog Ssb: a chaperone for general de novo protein folding and a nanny for specific intrinsically disordered protein domains

Activation of the heterotrimeric kinase SNF1 via phosphorylation of a specific residue within the α subunit is essential for the release from glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When glucose is available, SNF1 is maintained in the dephosphorylated, inactive state by the phosphatase Glc7-Reg1. Recent findings suggest that Bmh and Ssb combine their unique ...

25 years on and no end in sight: a perspective on the role of RecG protein

The RecG protein of Escherichia coli is a double-stranded DNA translocase that unwinds a variety of branched substrates in vitro. Although initially associated with homologous recombination and DNA repair, studies of cells lacking RecG over the past 25 years have led to the suggestion that the protein might be multi-functional and associated with a number of additional cellular ...