Current Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/294

List of Papers (Total 101)

How long does telomerase extend telomeres? Regulation of telomerase release and telomere length homeostasis

Telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes telomeres, is essential for most eukaryotes to maintain their generations. Telomere length homeostasis is achieved via a balance between telomere lengthening by telomerase, and erosion over successive cell divisions. Impaired telomerase regulation leads to shortened telomeres and can cause defects in tissue maintenance. Telomeric DNA is...

Oxygen and RNA in stress-induced mutation

Mechanisms of mutation upregulated by stress responses have been described in several organisms from bacteria to human. These mechanisms might accelerate genetic change specifically when cells are maladapted to their environment. Stress-induced mutation mechanisms differ in their genetic requirements from mutation in growing cells, occurring by different mechanisms in different...

Survival of the drowsiest: the hibernating 100S ribosome in bacterial stress management

In response to nutrient deprivation and environmental insults, bacteria conjoin two copies of non-translating 70S ribosomes that form the translationally inactive 100S dimer. This widespread phenomenon is believed to prevent ribosome turnover and serves as a reservoir that, when conditions become favorable, allows the hibernating ribosomes to be disassembled and recycled for...

One-two punch mechanism of gene repression: a fresh perspective on gene regulation

Cellular differentiation depends on temporally controlled waves of gene activation and inactivation that ultimately transform one cell type into another. It is well established that transcription factor cascades coordinate the timely activation of gene expression clusters during development. In comparison, much less is understood about how gene repression events are coordinated...

The importance of an interaction network for proper DNA polymerase ζ heterotetramer activity

Precisely controlled mechanisms have been evolved to rescue impeded DNA replication resulting from encountered obstacles and involve a set of low-fidelity translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. Studies in recent years have brought new insights into those TLS polymerases, especially concerning the structure and subunit composition of DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ). Pol ζ is...

Mms1 is an assistant for regulating G-quadruplex DNA structures

The preservation of genome stability is fundamental for every cell. Genomic integrity is constantly challenged. Among those challenges are also non-canonical nucleic acid structures. In recent years, scientists became aware of the impact of G-quadruplex (G4) structures on genome stability. It has been shown that folded G4-DNA structures cause changes in the cell, such as...

Telomerase regulation by the Pif1 helicase: a length-dependent effect?

Dysfunctional telomere length regulation is detrimental to human health, and both activation and inhibition of telomerase have been proposed in potential therapies to treat human diseases. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 protein is an evolutionarily conserved helicase that inhibits telomerase activity at DNA ends. Recent studies have indicated that Pif1 is specifically...

SMC complexes orchestrate the mitotic chromatin interaction landscape

Chromatin is a very long DNA–protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of...

Misfolding and aggregation of nascent proteins: a novel mode of toxic cadmium action in vivo

Cadmium is a highly poisonous metal and a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its cellular toxicity are not fully understood. Recent findings in yeast cells indicate that cadmium exerts its deleterious effects by inducing widespread misfolding and aggregation of nascent proteins. Here, we discuss this novel mode of toxic heavy metal action and propose a...

pH homeostasis in yeast; the phosphate perspective

Recent research further clarified the molecular mechanisms that link nutrient signaling and pH homeostasis with the regulation of growth and survival of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The central nutrient signaling kinases PKA, TORC1, and Sch9 are intimately associated to pH homeostasis, presumably allowing them to concert far-reaching phenotypical repercussions of...

Functional genomics analysis reveals the biosynthesis pathways of important cellular components (alginate and fucoidan) of Saccharina

Although alginate and fucoidan are unique cellular components and have important biological significance in brown algae, and many possible involved genes are present in brown algal genomes, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have not been fully revealed. Both polysaccharides may play important roles in the evolution of multicellular brown algae, but specific and in-depth...

The life of [PSI]

The AAA+ disaggregase Hsp104 is essential for the maintenance and inheritance of nearly all known prions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uniquely for [PSI +], the prion form of the Sup35 protein, there seem to be two activities, involving differing co-chaperones, by which Hsp104 affects the inheritance of [PSI +], the prion form of the Sup35 protein. Each pathway is also...

Express yourself: how PP2A-B55Pab1 helps TORC1 talk to TORC2

The control of cell fate, growth and proliferation in response to nitrogen availability is a tightly controlled process, with the two TOR complexes (TORC1 and TORC2) and their effectors playing a central role. PP2A-B55Pab1 has recently been shown to be a key element in this response in fission yeast, where it regulates cell cycle progression and sexual differentiation...

RNA-based regulation in type I toxin–antitoxin systems and its implication for bacterial persistence

Bacterial dormancy is a valuable survival strategy upon challenging environmental conditions. Dormant cells tolerate the consequences of high stress levels and may re-populate the environment upon return to favorable conditions. Antibiotic-tolerant bacteria—termed persisters—regularly cause relapsing infections, increase the likelihood of antibiotic resistance, and, therefore...

A mutated dph3 gene causes sensitivity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells to cytotoxic agents

Dph3 is involved in diphthamide modification of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF2 and in Elongator-mediated modifications of tRNAs, where a 5-methoxycarbonyl-methyl moiety is added to wobble uridines. Lack of such modifications affects protein synthesis due to inaccurate translation of mRNAs at ribosomes. We have discovered that integration of markers at the msh3...

NMD monitors translational fidelity 24/7

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is generally thought to be a eukaryotic mRNA surveillance pathway tasked with the elimination of transcripts harboring an in-frame premature termination codon (PTC). As presently conceived, NMD acting in this manner minimizes the likelihood that potentially toxic polypeptide fragments would accumulate in the cytoplasm. This notion is to be...

Diverse roles of Dpb2, the non-catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ε

Timely progression of living cells through the cell cycle is precisely regulated. This involves a series of phosphorylation events which are regulated by various cyclins, activated in coordination with the cell cycle progression. Phosphorylated proteins govern cell growth, division as well as duplication of the genetic material and transcriptional activation of genes involved in...

Starvation signals in yeast are integrated to coordinate metabolic reprogramming and stress response to ensure longevity

Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to...

Connecting virulence pathways to cell-cycle progression in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

Proliferation and host evasion are critical processes to understand at a basic biological level for improving infectious disease treatment options. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immunocompromised individuals by proliferating in cerebrospinal fluid. Current antifungal drugs target “virulence factors” for disease, such as components...

The functions of the multi-tasking Pfh1Pif1 helicase

Approximately, 1% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes encode for helicases, which make the number of helicases expressed in the cell considerably high. Helicases are motor proteins that participate in many central aspects of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and based on their helicase motif conservation, they are divided into different helicase families. The Pif1 family of...

Does DNA replication direct locus-specific recombination during host immune evasion by antigenic variation in the African trypanosome?

All pathogens must survive host immune attack and, amongst the survival strategies that have evolved, antigenic variation is a particularly widespread reaction to thwart adaptive immunity. Though the reactions that underlie antigenic variation are highly varied, recombination by gene conversion is a widespread approach to immune survival in bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. In...