Current Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/294

List of Papers (Total 102)

Smc5/6 complex regulates Sgs1 recombination functions

The family of RecQ helicases is evolutionary conserved from bacteria to humans and play key roles in genome stability. The budding yeast RecQ helicase Sgs1 has been implicated in several key processes during the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination as part of the STR complex (Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1). Limited information on how is Sgs1 recruited and regulated at sites of...

Stress sensitivity of a fission yeast strain lacking histidine kinases is rescued by the ectopic expression of Chk1 from Candida albicans

The development of new drugs against the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is compelling and the evolution of relevant bioassays is important to achieve this goal. Promising drug targets are proteins that lack human counterparts which are true for the His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction systems, important for stress sensing in bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the...

A conserved role of the RSC chromatin remodeler in the establishment of nucleosome-depleted regions

The occupancy of nucleosomes governs access to the eukaryotic genomes and results from a combination of biophysical features and the effect of ATP-dependent remodelling complexes. Most promoter regions show a conserved pattern characterized by a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) flanked by nucleosomal arrays. The conserved RSC remodeler was reported to be critical to establish NDR...

Transcription of the mating-type-regulated lncRNA IRT1 is governed by TORC1 and PKA

Cell fate decisions are controlled by multiple cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors. In budding yeast, the decision to enter gametogenesis or sporulation is dictated by nutrient availability and mating type. Recently, we showed that in diploid cells harbouring opposite mating types (MATa and MATα), the protein kinase A (PKA) and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1) signalling...

A role for the spindle assembly checkpoint in the DNA damage response

Spontaneous DNA damage poses a continuous threat to genomic integrity. If unchecked, genotoxic insults result in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells. In eukaryotic cells a DNA Damage Response (DDR) detects and responds to genotoxic stress, acting as an anti-cancer barrier in humans. Among other actions, the DDR blocks the segregation of incompletely replicated or...

The yeast Hsp70 homolog Ssb: a chaperone for general de novo protein folding and a nanny for specific intrinsically disordered protein domains

Activation of the heterotrimeric kinase SNF1 via phosphorylation of a specific residue within the α subunit is essential for the release from glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When glucose is available, SNF1 is maintained in the dephosphorylated, inactive state by the phosphatase Glc7-Reg1. Recent findings suggest that Bmh and Ssb combine their unique...

25 years on and no end in sight: a perspective on the role of RecG protein

The RecG protein of Escherichia coli is a double-stranded DNA translocase that unwinds a variety of branched substrates in vitro. Although initially associated with homologous recombination and DNA repair, studies of cells lacking RecG over the past 25 years have led to the suggestion that the protein might be multi-functional and associated with a number of additional cellular...

Using functional genomics to decipher the complexity of microbial pathogenicity

From the first identification of bacteria as a causative agent of disease, researchers have been developing methods and techniques to understand their pathogenic processes. For decades, this work has been limited to looking at a small number of genetically manipulatable isolates in in vitro assays or animal models of infection. Despite these limitations such work has facilitated...

PCNA-binding proteins in the archaea: novel functionality beyond the conserved core

Sliding clamps play an essential role in coordinating protein activity in DNA metabolism in all three domains of life. In eukaryotes and archaea, the sliding clamp is PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). Across the diversity of the archaea PCNA interacts with a highly conserved set of proteins with key roles in DNA replication and repair, including DNA polymerases B and D...

Nitric oxide in fungi: is there NO light at the end of the tunnel?

Nitric oxide (NO) is a remarkable gaseous molecule with multiple and important roles in different organisms, including fungi. However, the study of the biology of NO in fungi has been hindered by the lack of a complete knowledge on the different metabolic routes that allow a proper NO balance, and the regulation of these routes. Fungi have developed NO detoxification mechanisms...

Core regulatory components of the PHO pathway are conserved in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha

To gain better understanding of the diversity and evolution of the gene regulation system in eukaryotes, the phosphate signal transduction (PHO) pathway in non-conventional yeasts has been studied in recent years. Here we characterized the PHO pathway of Hansenula polymorpha, which is genetically tractable and distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces...

Aneuploidy as a mechanism of adaptation to telomerase insufficiency

Cells’ survival is determined by their ability to adapt to constantly changing environment. Adaptation responses involve global changes in transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications of proteins. In recent years, karyotype changes in adapting populations of single cell organisms have been reported in a number of studies. More recently, we have described...

Type II toxin: antitoxin systems. More than small selfish entities?

Toxin–antitoxin (TA) modules regulate metabolism and viability of bacteria and archaea. In type II TA systems these functions are generally thought to be performed by two small proteins. However, evidence is increasing that the toxins are much more diverse and can form multi-domain proteins. Recently, we published a novel type II TA system in which toxin and antitoxin are...

Affected chromosome homeostasis and genomic instability of clonal yeast cultures

Yeast cells originating from one single colony are considered genotypically and phenotypically identical. However, taking into account the cellular heterogeneity, it seems also important to monitor cell-to-cell variations within a clone population. In the present study, a comprehensive yeast karyotype screening was conducted using single chromosome comet assay. Chromosome...

More than just trash bins? Potential roles for extracellular vesicles in the vertical and horizontal transmission of yeast prions

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ensemble of structurally and functionally diverse cytoplasmic proteins has the ability to form self-perpetuating protein aggregates (e.g. prions) which are the vectors of heritable non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Whether harboring these prions is deleterious—akin to mammalian degenerative disorders—or beneficial—as epigenetic modifiers...

Emerging interactions between matrix components during biofilm development

Bacterial cells are most often found in the form of multicellular aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. Biofilms offer their member cells several benefits, such as resistance to killing by antimicrobials and predation. During biofilm formation there is a production of extracellular substances that, upon assembly, constitute an extracellular matrix. The ability to generate...

Multifaceted roles of extracellular DNA in bacterial physiology

In textbooks, DNA is generally defined as the universal storage material for genetic information in all branches of life. Beyond this important intracellular role, DNA can also be present outside of living cells and is an abundant biopolymer in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The origin of extracellular DNA in such ecological niches is diverse: it can be actively secreted or...

Cdc14 phosphatase: warning, no delay allowed for chromosome segregation!

Cycling events in nature start and end to restart again and again. In the cell cycle, whose purpose is to become two where there was only one, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the beginning and, therefore, phosphatases must play a role in the ending. Since CDKs are drivers of the cell cycle and cancer cells uncontrollably divide, much attention has been put into knocking down...

Fungal stress biology: a preface to the Fungal Stress Responses special edition

There is currently an urgent need to increase global food security, reverse the trends of increasing cancer rates, protect environmental health, and mitigate climate change. Toward these ends, it is imperative to improve soil health and crop productivity, reduce food spoilage, reduce pesticide usage by increasing the use of biological control, optimize bioremediation of polluted...

Molecular diversity of LysM carbohydrate-binding motifs in fungi

LysM motifs are carbohydrate-binding modules found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They bind to N-acetylglucosamine-containing carbohydrates, such as chitin, chitio-oligosaccharides and peptidoglycan. In this review, we summarize the features of the protein architecture of LysM-containing proteins in fungi and discuss their so far known biochemical properties, transcriptional...

A novel role for lncRNAs in cell cycle control during stress adaptation

Eukaryotic cells have developed sophisticated systems to constantly monitor changes in the extracellular environment and to orchestrate a proper cellular response. To maximize survival, cells delay cell-cycle progression in response to environmental changes. In response to extracellular insults, stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) modulate cell-cycle progression and gene...