Pediatric Nephrology

http://link.springer.com/journal/467

List of Papers (Total 606)

Clinical risk stratification of paediatric renal transplant recipients using C1q and C3d fixing of de novo donor-specific antibodies

Introduction We have previously shown that children who developed de novo donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) had greater decline in allograft function. We hypothesised that patients with complement-activating DSA would have poorer renal allograft outcomes. Methods A total of 75 children developed DSA in the original study. The first positive DSA sample ...

Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed ...

Clinical value of ambulatory blood pressure in pediatric patients after renal transplantation

Hypertension is a highly prevalent co-morbidity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Undertreated hypertension is associated with cardiovascular complications and negatively impacts renal graft survival. Thus, the accurate measurement of blood pressure is of the utmost importance for the correct diagnosis and subsequent management of post-renal transplant hypertension. Data ...

Identifying cisplatin-induced kidney damage in paediatric oncology patients

Cisplatin is one chemotherapeutic agent used to treat childhood cancer in numerous treatment protocols, including as a single agent. It is likely to remain in clinical use over the long term. However, cisplatin-related toxicities, including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, are common, affecting treatment, day-to-day life and survival of such children. With one in 700 young adults ...

The FGF23–Klotho axis and cardiac tissue Doppler imaging in pediatric chronic kidney disease—a prospective cohort study

Background Chronic kidney disease-associated mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in pediatric kidney disease patients and a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho are novel key players in CKD-MBD, and has been suggested to be involved in the development of CVD. Methods This prospective cohort study included 74 ...

Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome: findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry

Background As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry data. Methods Data were available for 88 male PBS patients aged ...

Rituximab in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: lessons from clinical trials

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is the most common chronic glomerular disease in children. A total of 80–90% of patients with childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome achieve remission with steroid therapy [steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS)]. However, approximately 50% of children with SSNS develop frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) or steroid-dependent nephrotic ...

Urinary tract infection in small children: the evolution of renal damage over time

Background Our objective was to analyze the evolution of kidney damage over time in small children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and factors associated with progression of renal damage. Methods From a cohort of 1003 children <2 years of age with first-time UTI, a retrospective analysis of 103 children was done. Children were selected because of renal damage at index ...

Continually improving standards of care: The UK Renal Registry as a translational public health tool

A disease registry uses observational study methods to collect defined data on patients with a particular condition for a predetermined purpose. By providing comprehensive standardised data on patients with kidney disease, renal registries aim to provide a ‘real world’ representation of practice patterns, treatment and patient outcomes that may not be captured accurately by other ...

Graft nephrectomy in children

Kidney transplantation is recognised as the gold standard treatment of end-stage renal disease in most children, with excellent graft survival rates. When graft failure occurs, renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have the option of removal of the transplant (graft nephrectomy [GN]), or leaving the failed transplant in situ. The aims of this review are to discuss the indications for ...

New insights into the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy

IgA nephropathy is the most common form of glomerulonephritis in many parts of the world and remains an important cause of end-stage renal disease. Current evidence suggests that IgA nephropathy is not due to a single pathogenic insult, but rather the result of multiple sequential pathogenic “hits”. An abnormally increased level of circulating poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 and the ...

Citrate versus heparin anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy in small children

Background Citrate is preferred over heparin as an anticoagulant in adult continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, its potential adverse effects and data on use in CRRT in infants and toddlers is limited. We conducted a prospective study on using citrate in CRRT in critically ill small children. Methods Children who underwent CRRT with the smallest filter in our PICU ...

Dysfunctional voiding: the importance of non-invasive urodynamics in diagnosis and treatment

In Dysfunctional voiding, failure of the external sphincter-pelvic floor complex to relax during micturition results in bladder outflow obstruction with a spectrum of presentation from more benign lower urinary tract dysfunction including recurrent urinary tract infections, to significant upper tract pathology and end-stage renal failure. There is no underlying neurological or ...

Life with one kidney

Life with a solitary functioning kidney (SFK) may be different from that when born with two kidneys. Based on the hyperfiltration hypothesis, a SFK may lead to glomerular damage with hypertension, albuminuria and progression towards end-stage renal disease. As the prognosis of kidney donors was considered to be very good, having a SFK has been considered to be a benign condition. ...

Survival in children requiring chronic renal replacement therapy

Survival in the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population has improved substantially over recent decades. Nonetheless, mortality remains at least 30 times higher than that of healthy peers. Patient survival is multifactorial and dependent on various patient and treatment characteristics and degree of economic welfare of the country in which a patient is treated. In this ...

Oral paricalcitol: expanding therapeutic options for pediatric chronic kidney disease patients

The complex pathophysiology of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the development of mineral and bone disorder, abbreviated as CKD-MBD, is of vital importance to a pediatric patient. Paricalcitol, the 19 nor-1,25(OH)2D2 analogue was shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in adults almost two decades ago. It also ...

Late renal toxicity of treatment for childhood malignancy: risk factors, long-term outcomes, and surveillance

Chronic glomerular and tubular nephrotoxicity is reported in 20–50% and 20–25%, respectively, of children and adolescents treated with ifosfamide and 60–80% and 10–30%, respectively, of those given cisplatin. Up to 20% of children display evidence of chronic glomerular damage after unilateral nephrectomy for a renal tumour. Overall, childhood cancer survivors have a ninefold higher ...

Efficacy and safety of paricalcitol in children with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

Background Elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels can contribute to morbidity and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of oral paricalcitol in reducing iPTH levels in children with stages 3–5 CKD. Methods Children aged 10–16 years with stages 3–5 CKD were enrolled in two phase 3 studies. The ...

Unusual severe case of hemolytic uremic syndrome due to Shiga toxin 2d-producing E. coli O80:H2

Background Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in children, with the majority of cases caused by an infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Whereas O157 is still the predominant STEC serotype, non-O157 serotypes are increasingly associated with STEC-HUS. However, little is known about this emerging and highly ...