PLOS Pathogens

http://www.plospathogens.org/

List of Papers (Total 4,989)

The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice

Although nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are the major immune receptors in plants, the mechanism that controls their activation and immune signaling remains elusive. Here, we report that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from Magnaporthe oryzae targets the rice E3 ligase APIP10 for degradation, but that APIP10, in return, ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t and ...

PI3Kγ Is Critical for Dendritic Cell-Mediated CD8+ T Cell Priming and Viral Clearance during Influenza Virus Infection

Phosphoinositide-3-kinases have been shown to be involved in influenza virus pathogenesis. They are targeted directly by virus proteins and are essential for efficient viral replication in infected lung epithelial cells. However, to date the role of PI3K signaling in influenza infection in vivo has not been thoroughly addressed. Here we show that one of the PI3K subunits, p110γ, is ...

Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) ...

Endothelin-1 Mediates Brain Microvascular Dysfunction Leading to Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Experimental Cerebral Malaria

Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including cerebral malaria, a potentially life-threatening encephalopathy. Vasculopathy is thought to contribute to cerebral malaria pathogenesis. The vasoactive compound endothelin-1, a key participant in many inflammatory processes, likely mediates vascular and cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria. We ...

siRNA Screen Identifies Trafficking Host Factors that Modulate Alphavirus Infection

Little is known about the repertoire of cellular factors involved in the replication of pathogenic alphaviruses. To uncover molecular regulators of alphavirus infection, and to identify candidate drug targets, we performed a high-content imaging-based siRNA screen. We revealed an actin-remodeling pathway involving Rac1, PIP5K1- α, and Arp3, as essential for infection by pathogenic ...

Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor

Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in ...

Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected ...

Optimal Combinations of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for Prevention and Treatment of HIV-1 Clade C Infection

The identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding ...

The Type III Secretion Translocation Pore Senses Host Cell Contact

Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are nano-syringes used by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens to promote infection by directly injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells. Translocation of effectors is triggered by host-cell contact and requires assembly of a pore in the host-cell plasma membrane, which consists of two translocator proteins. Our understanding of the ...

Bacillus bombysepticus α-Toxin Binding to G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Regulates cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway to Induce Host Death

Bacterial pathogens and their toxins target host receptors, leading to aberrant behavior or host death by changing signaling events through subversion of host intracellular cAMP level. This is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Previous studies describe toxins that increase cAMP in host cells, resulting in death through G protein-coupled receptor ...

A Novel Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Influences Compatibility between the Gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Digenean Trematode Schistosoma mansoni

Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects over 260 million people worldwide especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Schistosomes must undergo their larval development within specific species of snail intermediate hosts, a trait that is shared among almost all digenean trematodes. This unique and long-standing ...

The Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Matrix Protein PPXY Late Domain Drives the Production of Defective Interfering Particles

Arenaviruses cause severe diseases in humans but establish asymptomatic, lifelong infections in rodent reservoirs. Persistently-infected rodents harbor high levels of defective interfering (DI) particles, which are thought to be important for establishing persistence and mitigating virus-induced cytopathic effect. Little is known about what drives the production of DI particles. We ...

Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection

Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae) are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for ...

Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid

Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3) is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i) MAPK activation, ii) defense-related gene ...

Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo

An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, ...

Regulating a Post-Transcriptional Regulator: Protein Phosphorylation, Degradation and Translational Blockage in Control of the Trypanosome Stress-Response RNA-Binding Protein ZC3H11

The life cycle of the mammalian pathogen Trypanosoma brucei involves commuting between two markedly different environments: the homeothermic mammalian host and the poikilothermic invertebrate vector. The ability to resist temperature and other stresses is essential for trypanosome survival. Trypanosome gene expression is mainly post-transcriptional, but must nevertheless be ...

Promotion of Expansion and Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Interleukin-27 into Myeloid Progenitors to Control Infection in Emergency Myelopoiesis

Emergency myelopoiesis is inflammation-induced hematopoiesis to replenish myeloid cells in the periphery, which is critical to control the infection with pathogens. Previously, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ were demonstrated to play a critical role in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors, leading to production of ...

Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread

Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the ...

In Vivo Molecular Dissection of the Effects of HIV-1 in Active Tuberculosis

Increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) associated with HIV-1 infection is primarily attributed to deficient T helper (Th)1 immune responses, but most people with active TB have robust Th1 responses, indicating that these are not sufficient to protect against disease. Recent findings suggest that favourable outcomes following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection arise from finely ...

Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes ...

PSGL-1 on Leukocytes is a Critical Component of the Host Immune Response against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

Bacterial uptake by phagocytic cells is a vital event in the clearance of invading pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. A major role of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) on leukocytes against invasive pneumococcal disease is described in this study. Phagocytosis experiments using different serotypes demonstrated that PSGL-1 is involved in the recognition, uptake ...

Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen’s growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36–48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser ...

A Functional Bacterium-to-Plant DNA Transfer Machinery of Rhizobium etli

Different strains and species of the soil phytopathogen Agrobacterium possess the ability to transfer and integrate a segment of DNA (T-DNA) into the genome of their eukaryotic hosts, which is mainly mediated by a set of virulence (vir) genes located on the bacterial Ti-plasmid that also contains the T-DNA. To date, Agrobacterium is considered to be unique in its capacity to ...