The AAPS Journal

http://link.springer.com/journal/12248

List of Papers (Total 203)

Virtual Thorough QT (TQT) Trial—Extrapolation of In Vitro Cardiac Safety Data to In Vivo Situation Using Multi-Scale Physiologically Based Ventricular Cell-wall Model Exemplified with Tolterodine and Fesoterodine

QT interval prolongation typically assessed with dedicated clinical trials called thorough QT/QTc (TQT) studies is used as surrogate to identify the proarrhythmic risk of drugs albeit with criticism in terms of cost-effectiveness in establishing the actual risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Quantitative systems toxicology and safety (QSTS) models have potential to quantitatively...

The BioGIT System: a Valuable In Vitro Tool to Assess the Impact of Dose and Formulation on Early Exposure to Low Solubility Drugs After Oral Administration

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the in vitro biorelevant gastrointestinal transfer (BioGIT) system in assessing the impact of dose and formulation on early exposure by comparing in vitro data with previously collected human plasma data of low solubility active pharmaceutical ingredients. Eight model active pharmaceutical ingredients were tested; Lu 35...

Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to...

Selection of a Ligand-Binding Neutralizing Antibody Assay for Benralizumab: Comparison with an Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Cell-Based Assay

Assessment of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) for neutralizing activity is important for the clinical development of biopharmaceuticals. Two types of neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays (competitive ligand-binding assay [CLBA] and cell-based assay [CBA]) are commonly used to characterize neutralizing activities. To support the clinical development of benralizumab, a humanized, anti...

Towards Bridging Translational Gap in Cardiotoxicity Prediction: an Application of Progressive Cardiac Risk Assessment Strategy in TdP Risk Assessment of Moxifloxacin

Drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia, especially occurrence of torsade de pointes (TdP), has been a leading cause of attrition and post-approval re-labeling and withdrawal of many drugs. TdP is a multifactorial event, reflecting more than just drug-induced cardiac ion channel inhibition and QT interval prolongation. This presents a translational gap in extrapolating pre-clinical and...

Model-Based Adaptive Optimal Design (MBAOD) Improves Combination Dose Finding Designs: an Example in Oncology

Design of phase 1 combination therapy trials is complex compared to single therapy trials. In this work, model-based adaptive optimal design (MBAOD) was exemplified and evaluated for a combination of paclitaxel and a hypothetical new compound in a phase 1 study to determine the best dosing regimen for a phase 2 trial. Neutropenia was assumed as the main toxicity and the dose...

Calibration Curves in Quantitative Ligand Binding Assays: Recommendations and Best Practices for Preparation, Design, and Editing of Calibration Curves

The accuracy of reported sample results is contingent upon the quality of the assay calibration curve, and as such, calibration curves are critical components of ligand binding and other quantitative methods. Regulatory guidance and lead publications have defined many of the requirements for calibration curves which encompass design, acceptance criteria, and selection of a...

Recommendations for the Development and Validation of Neutralizing Antibody Assays in Support of Biosimilar Assessment

The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) biosimilar focus group on nonclinical and clinical assays has developed this manuscript to guide the industry on best practices and testing strategies when developing neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays for biosimilar programs. The immunogenicity assessment to biosimilar and originator drug products is one of the key...

Adaptive Optimal Designs for Dose-Finding Studies with Time-to-Event Outcomes

We consider optimal design problems for dose-finding studies with censored Weibull time-to-event outcomes. Locally D-optimal designs are investigated for a quadratic dose–response model for log-transformed data subject to right censoring. Two-stage adaptive D-optimal designs using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) model updating are explored through simulation for a range of...

Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Human Tissue: Platforms to Evaluate Drug Metabolism and Safety

Despite the improvements in drug screening, high levels of drug attrition persist. Although high-throughput screening platforms permit the testing of compound libraries, poor compound efficacy or unexpected organ toxicity are major causes of attrition. Part of the reason for drug failure resides in the models employed, most of which are not representative of normal organ biology...

Intestinal Stem Cells to Advance Drug Development, Precision, and Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift in Translational Research

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and...

Target and Tissue Selectivity Prediction by Integrated Mechanistic Pharmacokinetic-Target Binding and Quantitative Structure Activity Modeling

Selectivity is an important attribute of effective and safe drugs, and prediction of in vivo target and tissue selectivity would likely improve drug development success rates. However, a lack of understanding of the underlying (pharmacological) mechanisms and availability of directly applicable predictive methods complicates the prediction of selectivity. We explore the value of...

A View on the Importance of “Multi-Attribute Method” for Measuring Purity of Biopharmaceuticals and Improving Overall Control Strategy

Today, we are experiencing unprecedented growth and innovation within the pharmaceutical industry. Established protein therapeutic modalities, such as recombinant human proteins, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and fusion proteins, are being used to treat previously unmet medical needs. Novel therapies such as bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), chimeric antigen T cell receptors...

Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers for Improved Drug Therapy—Recent Progress and Future Developments

Much of the inter-individual variability in drug efficacy and risk of adverse reactions is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics or immunological responses. Pharmacogenetic research has identified a multitude of gene-drug response associations, which have resulted in genetically guided treatment and dosing decisions...

Kernel-Based Visual Hazard Comparison (kbVHC): a Simulation-Free Diagnostic for Parametric Repeated Time-to-Event Models

Repeated time-to-event (RTTE) models are the preferred method to characterize the repeated occurrence of clinical events. Commonly used diagnostics for parametric RTTE models require representative simulations, which may be difficult to generate in situations with dose titration or informative dropout. Here, we present a novel simulation-free diagnostic tool for parametric RTTE...

Real Patient and its Virtual Twin: Application of Quantitative Systems Toxicology Modelling in the Cardiac Safety Assessment of Citalopram

A quantitative systems toxicology (QST) model for citalopram was established to simulate, in silico, a ‘virtual twin’ of a real patient to predict the occurrence of cardiotoxic events previously reported in patients under various clinical conditions. The QST model considers the effects of citalopram and its most notable electrophysiologically active primary (desmethylcitalopram...

Recommendations for the Assessment and Management of Pre-existing Drug-Reactive Antibodies During Biotherapeutic Development

Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) pose a potential risk to patient safety and efficacy and are routinely monitored during clinical trials. Pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies are present in patients without prior drug exposure and are defined by their ability to bind to a component of the drug. These pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies are frequently observed and could represent an...

Drug Target Interference in Immunogenicity Assays: Recommendations and Mitigation Strategies

Sensitive and specific methodology is required for the detection and characterization of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). High-quality ADA data enables the evaluation of potential impact of ADAs on the drug pharmacokinetic profile, patient safety, and efficacious response to the drug. Immunogenicity assessments are typically initiated at early stages in preclinical studies and...

Recommendations for Selection and Characterization of Protein Biomarker Assay Calibrator Material

As biomarkers continue to become an integral part of drug development and decision-making, there are increased expectations for reliable and quantitative assays. Protein biomarker assay results are directly influenced by the calibrator material. The selection of calibrator material presents many challenges that impact the relative accuracy and performance of the assay. There is...

siRNA-Mediated RNA Interference in Precision-Cut Tissue Slices Prepared from Mouse Lung and Kidney

Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated RNAi interference (RNAi) is a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism which can be used to study the function of genes in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models). However, there is a translational gap between these models. Hence, there is a need for novel experimental models that combine the advantages of in vitro...

Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Artemisinin Resistance in Southeast Asia

Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with...

Microdialysis as an Important Technique in Systems Pharmacology—a Historical and Methodological Review

Microdialysis has contributed with very important knowledge to the understanding of target-specific concentrations and their relationship to pharmacodynamic effects from a systems pharmacology perspective, aiding in the global understanding of drug effects. This review focuses on the historical development of microdialysis as a method to quantify the pharmacologically very...

Integrated Gut and Liver Microphysiological Systems for Quantitative In Vitro Pharmacokinetic Studies

Investigation of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a compound is of significant importance during the early stages of drug development, and therefore several in vitro systems are routinely employed for this purpose. However, the need for more physiologically realistic in vitro models has recently fueled the emerging field of tissue-engineered 3D cultures, also referred to as organs-on...