Inflammation and Regeneration

http://link.springer.com/journal/41232

List of Papers (Total 45)

The crystal-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, which is accompanied by the deposition of cholesterol-rich lipids and the infiltration of macrophages. Other well-known features of atherosclerotic lesions include the deposition of cholesterol crystals and calcium phosphate crystals; however, their pathophysiological role remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that cholesterol crystals ...

Effects of acute exposure to low-dose radiation on the characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells

Background In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of low-dose irradiation on human health. We examined whether low-dose irradiation affected the functions of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), which are tissue/organ-supportive stem cells, derived from bone marrow (BM). Methods Normal human BM-MSCs from five healthy individuals were used in this ...

Resident fibroblasts in the kidney: a major driver of fibrosis and inflammation

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a growing social and economic burden. The prevalence and burden of CKD is anticipated to further increase over the next decades as a result of aging. Main body of abstract In the pathogenesis of CKD, irrespective of the ...

Role of fibroblast growth factors in bone regeneration

Bone is a metabolically active organ that undergoes continuous remodeling throughout life. However, many complex skeletal defects such as large traumatic bone defects or extensive bone loss after tumor resection may cause failure of bone healing. Effective therapies for these conditions typically employ combinations of cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. In this review, we pay ...

Pathophysiology and therapeutic potential of cardiac fibrosis

Inflammatory and fibrotic responses to myocardial damage are essential for cardiac repair; however, these responses often result in extensive fibrotic remodeling with impaired systolic function. Recent reports have suggested that such acute phase responses provide a favorable environment for endogenous cardiac regeneration, which is mainly driven by the division of pre-existing ...

Regulation of blood vascular permeability in the skin

Regulation of blood vessel permeability is essential for the homeostasis of peripheral tissues. This regulation controls the trafficking of plasma contents, including water, vitamins, ions, hormones, cytokines, amyloids, lipoproteins, carrier proteins, and immunoglobulins. The properties of blood vessels vary among tissues based on their structural differences: continuous, ...

Clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells in liver diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have been used in clinical trials in various fields. These cells are easily expanded, show low immunogenicity, can be acquired from medical waste, and have multiple functions, suggesting their potential applications in a variety of diseases, including liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease. MSCs help prepare the microenvironment, in ...

Recent advances in the treatment of skin involvement in systemic sclerosis

Skin fibrosis is a devastating clinical condition commonly seen in skin-restricted and systemic disorders. The goal of skin fibrosis treatment is the restoration of abnormally activated dermal fibroblasts producing the excessive amount of extracellular matrix, which is generally a final consequence of the complex disease process including the activation of vascular and immune ...

The etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis: barrier disruption, immunological derangement, and pruritus

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent eczema accompanied by an intractable itch that leads to an impaired quality of life. Extensive recent studies have shed light on the multifaceted pathogenesis of the disease. The complex interplay among skin barrier deficiency, immunological derangement, and pruritus contributes to the ...

Cancer cell reprogramming to identify the genes competent for generating liver cancer stem cells

The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer originates from the malignant transformation of stem/progenitor cells and is considered to apply to many cancers, including liver cancer. Identification that CSCs are responsible for drug resistance, metastasis, and secondary tumor appearance suggests that these populations are novel obligatory targets for the treatment ...

Applications of reconstituted inflammasomes in a cell-free system to drug discovery and elucidation of the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases

The inflammasome, typically consisting of a Nod-like receptor, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and pro-caspase-1, has recently been identified as a huge intracellular complex, which plays a crucial role in interleukin-1 maturation or specific physiological functions. Two Nod-like receptors, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains-containing protein (Nod)1 and ...

Isolation of dental pulp stem cells with high osteogenic potential

Dental pulp stem cells/progenitor cells (DPSCs) can be easily obtained and can have excellent proliferative and mineralization potentials. Therefore, many studies have investigated the isolation and bone formation of DPSCs. In most previous reports, human DPSCs were traditionally isolated by exploiting their ability to adhere to plastic tissue culture dishes. DPSCs isolated by ...

Pharmacological targeting of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells for the treatment of hematological disorders

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are mainly based on three characteristics: immunomodulation, tissue regeneration, and hematopoietic support. Cell therapy using culture-expanded MSCs is effective in some intractable bone and hemato-immune disorders; however, its efficacy is limited. In this article, we review the previous efforts to improve the ...

The roles of RGMa-neogenin signaling in inflammation and angiogenesis

Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein that has diverse functions in the developing and pathological central nervous system (CNS). The binding of RGM to its receptor neogenin regulates axon guidance, neuronal differentiation, and survival during the development of the CNS. In the pathological state, RGM expression is induced ...

Prostaglandin E2-EP2 signaling as a node of chronic inflammation in the colon tumor microenvironment

Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Involvement of prostaglandin (PG) system in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer has been suggested from clinical studies demonstrating therapeutic effect of NSAIDs including aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors. However, mechanisms on how PG regulates inflammatory responses leading to colorectal cancer development ...

Effect of human umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation on oval cell response in 2-AAF/CCL4 liver injury model: experimental immunohistochemical study

Background Oval cells, specific liver progenitors, are activated in response to injury. The human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) is a possible source of transplantable hepatic progenitors and can be used in cases of severe liver injury. We detected the effect of hUCB stem cell transplantation on natural response of oval cells to injury. Methods Twenty-four female albino rats were ...

Epithelial stem cell culture: modeling human disease and applications for regenerative medicine

The inability to maintain the immaturity of stem cell populations in vitro restricts the long-term expansion of various types of human epithelial stem cells. However, recent technical advances in epithelial stem cell culture have led to the development of novel in vitro strategies for regenerating epithelial tissues and for closely mimicking human diseases such as cancer and ...

Quantitative assessment of angiogenesis and pericyte coverage in human cell-derived vascular sprouts

Background Pericytes, surrounding the endothelium, fulfill diverse functions that are crucial for vascular homeostasis. The loss of pericytes is associated with pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, there exists a need for an experimental system that combines pharmacologic manipulation and quantification of pericyte coverage during sprouting ...

Neuroprotective effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on periventricular leukomalacia-like brain injury in neonatal rats

Background Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of multifactorial brain injury that causes cerebral palsy in premature infants. To date, effective therapies for PVL have not been available. In this study, we examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess neuroprotective property in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neonatal rat PVL-like brain injury. Methods Human ...

Immunosuppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes on a concanavalin A-induced liver injury model

Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes on an immune-induced liver injury model. MSCs show a unique function to modulate immune reaction although the molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. Exosomes are a nanoparticle containing microRNA and many ligands and are recognized as important factors secreted from MSC ...

Dissecting cellular senescence and SASP in Drosophila

Cellular senescence can act as both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter depending on the cellular contexts. On one hand, premature senescence has been considered as an innate host defense mechanism against carcinogenesis in mammals. In response to various stresses including oxidative stress, DNA damage, and oncogenic stress, suffered cells undergo irreversible cell cycle arrest, ...

Organ dysfunction as a new standard for defining sepsis

Despite advances in intensive care and the widespread use of standardized care included in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, sepsis remains a leading cause of death, and the prevalence of sepsis increases concurrent with the aging process. The diagnosis of sepsis was originally based on the evidence of persistent bacteremia (septicemia) but was modified in 1992 to ...

Heart regeneration for clinical application update 2016: from induced pluripotent stem cells to direct cardiac reprogramming

Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of death for which current therapeutic regimens are limited. Following myocardial injury, endogenous cardiac fibroblasts, which account for more than half of the cells in the heart, proliferate and synthesize extracellular matrix, leading to fibrosis and heart failure. As terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes have little regenerative ...

Liver regeneration and fibrosis after inflammation

The liver is a unique organ with an extraordinary capacity to regenerate upon various injuries. In acute and transient liver injury by insults such as chemical hepatotoxins, the liver in rodents returns to the original architecture by proliferation and remodeling of the remaining cells within a week. In contrast, chronic liver inflammation due to various etiologies, e.g., virus ...

The pathophysiological role of acute inflammation after spinal cord injury

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes irreparable severe motor and sensory dysfunction. Mechanical trauma rapidly leads to blood-spinal cord barrier disruption, neural cell death, axonal damage, and demyelination, followed by a cascade of secondary injury that expands the additional inflammatory reaction at the lesion site. Although the role of inflammation in this phase is ...