Oncology and Therapy

http://link.springer.com/journal/40487

List of Papers (Total 60)

Osimertinib for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced EGFR T790M Mutation-Positive NSCLC: Tolerability and Diagnostic Methods From an Expanded Access Program

IntroductionThe osimertinib (AZD9291) US Expanded Access Program (EAP) provided compassionate access to osimertinib prior to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for patients with advanced/metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following progression on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting EGFR. Here...

Clinical Utility of Cxbladder Monitor for Patients with a History of Urothelial Carcinoma: A Physician–Patient Real-World Clinical Data Analysis

IntroductionInternational guidelines advocate regular surveillance of patients following urothelial carcinoma (UC). A validated molecular diagnostic non-invasive urine test, Cxbladder Monitor, correctly identifies patients with a UC history who have low-probability of recurrence. The present study assesses the clinical utility of Cxbladder Monitor in reducing the number and...

Living with Advanced Kidney Cancer and Treatment with Cabozantinib: Through the Eyes of the Patient and the Physician

This article is co-authored by a patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma and his treating oncologist. The patient relates his personal experiences in struggling with cancer, including physical limitations, but also details his psychological, existential and spiritual distress through the cancer journey. The patient shares a proactive approach to the most common side effects of...

A Review of Omacetaxine: A Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treatment Resurrected

The paradigm of targeted therapy was pioneered for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has led to marked improvements in responses and overall survival; however, there is still a subset of patients that are either resistant through a multitude of mechanisms or intolerant to standard TKI therapy. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (omacetaxine...

Uveal Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

Melanomas affecting different components of the uvea occur with differing frequencies and clinical presentations. Uveal melanoma is diagnosed via funduscopic exam and ancillary tests. These lesions may present with visual findings or incidental findings on physical exam. Metastasis occurs in approximately half of all patients with primary uveal melanoma. The liver is the most...

Current Status and Study Progress of Recombinant Human Endostatin in Cancer Treatment

Angiogenesis plays fundamentally critical roles in solid-tumor pathogenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis. Endostatin, one of the most potent anti-angiogenic factors, was first isolated in Folkman’s lab in 1997, and was reported to dramatically shrink tumor blood formation. But its insoluble and unstable nature coupled with the high cost of synthesizing the endostatin protein...

The Effect of Food on the Absorption of Abiraterone Acetate from a Fine Particle Dosage Form: A Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Volunteers

Introduction Abiraterone acetate (AA) is approved for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The originator AA (OAA) formulation has been associated with AUC and C max increases of 10- and 17-fold, respectively, when administered following a high-fat meal relative to the fasted state. AA fine particle (AAFP) is a proprietary formulation (utilizing...

Clinical Course After Initiation of Nivolumab Therapy in Patients with EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With or Without Pd-L1 Expression

Introduction Nivolumab has been reported to be more effective in the subset of non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with tumors harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or expressing programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1). However, it is unclear whether PD-L1 expression influences the efficacy of nivolumab in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC...

The Readability of Online Patient Resources for Skin Cancer Treatment

Introduction Treatment options for skin cancer vary and to help facilitate the decision-making process many patients will look to online resources. However, general literacy levels in the population are low, making many of these online sources unreadable, worsening health inequality. We therefore identified the most frequently accessed online patient-orientated information...

EGFR Inhibitors and Cutaneous Complications: A Practical Approach to Management

Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are increasingly being used for malignancies of epithelial origin. Though these therapies are better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy, they have unique side-effect profiles that are related to their mechanism of action. Given the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor in the skin, nails, and hair, dermatologic...

Phase IV Study of Sunitinib in Chinese Patients with Imatinib-Resistant or Imatinib-Intolerant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Introduction Sunitinib is approved in China for treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), after disease progression on, or intolerance to, imatinib. However, available data from prospective clinical trials on its efficacy and safety in Chinese patients is limited. Our objective is to determine the efficacy and safety of sunitinib in Chinese patients with imatinib...

Practical Management of Cancer Cachexia

In cancer patients, delivery of palliative care during anticancer treatment (i.e., concurrent care) leads to enhanced clinical outcome. Nutrition therapy is part of palliative care and, therefore, should be prescribed to prevent or treat cachexia. Effective nutrition therapy is based on a thorough assessment of weight loss history, eating behaviour, changes in appetite, and the...

Second-line Treatments for Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Network Meta-Analysis of Overall Survival Using Parametric Modelling Methods

Introduction Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is one of the most common forms of cancer and remains difficult to cure. There is currently no recommended therapy for second-line AGC in the UK despite the availability of various interventions. This paper aims to compare different interventions for treatment of second-line AGC using more complex methods to estimate relative efficacy...

DNA Mutations May Not Be the Cause of Cancer

Cancer is the most challenging disease of our time with increasing numbers of new cases each year, worldwide. Great achievements have been reached in cancer research through deep sequencing which helped define druggable targets. However, the still-evolving targeted therapy suffers resistance suggesting that DNA mutations considered as drivers may not have a role in tumor...

A Review of Fulvestrant in Breast Cancer

Fulvestrant is a selective estrogen receptor degrader that binds, blocks and degrades the estrogen receptor (ER), leading to complete inhibition of estrogen signaling through the ER. This review article further explains the mechanism of action of the drug and goes on to review the trials carried out to optimize its dosing. Multiple trials have been undertaken to compare...

Qualitatively Comparing the Support Needs of People with Cancer Based on Their History of Anxiety/Depression

Introduction Research rarely considers the origin or history of a cancer patient’s anxiety and/or depression, instead assuming that these illnesses are related to the cancer experience. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the support needs of people who have experienced anxiety/depression as part of the cancer experience and people who have not, as well as between...

Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Patient and Physician’s Perspective

This article is co-authored by a patient with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and his physician, who performed oesophagectomy. The patient relates his pre-operative preparation and post-operative experience. The physician comments on the alarming increase in the incidence of this cancer, risk factors, and treatment. As illustrated by the patient’s report, the physician also discusses...

Efficacy and Safety Results of the Afatinib Expanded Access Program

Introduction Afatinib is an oral, irreversible ErbB family blocker approved for first-line treatment of metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expanded access program (EAP) allowed early access to afatinib and provided additional data on its safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Methods The afatinib EAP was an...

Health-Related Quality of Life as a Prognostic Measure of Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review of the CheckMate 025 Trial

The phase III, randomized, open-label CheckMate 025 study showed an overall survival benefit in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with nivolumab versus everolimus. Here, we review the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results of this trial, in which nivolumab was associated with significant improvements in HRQoL, with more patients having a clinically...

Bone Marrow Necrosis in Newly Diagnosed Acute Leukemia: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

Bone marrow necrosis (BMN) in acute leukemia is a rare histopathological entity at the time of initial diagnosis. However, it represents an important diagnostic and prognostic challenge. Two cases of BMN are reported: a 44-year-old patient with B cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a 27-year-old man with FAB-M5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who both...

Switching from an LHRH Antagonist to an LHRH Agonist: A Case Report of 10 Finnish Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

IntroductionLuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues are widely used for the treatment of advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer. However, there are currently no clinical guidelines for switching between LHRH analogues. It has been reported that there may be clinical benefits for patients switching between different formulations of LHRH agonists, as well as from...

Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Systematic Literature Review

IntroductionPatients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially those with relapsed or refractory AML, have poor clinical prognosis and outcomes. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments have become increasingly important in oncology, aiding in identifying and informing supportive therapy needs during treatment and beyond; however, HRQoL in hematology, and AML in...

Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) as Part of Value-Based Care Can Shape Therapy Guidelines: Impact on Emerging Targeted Agents and Immunotherapy Protocols in Resource-Limited Regions

Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are commonly integrated into clinical trials for new cancer therapies or treatment modalities; however, beyond a cursory review during the registration process for a new drug, these important measures of patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness are often under-used in daily practice. We cite literature under-scoring the value of PROs not only...

The Cost Impact of Lenalidomide for Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma in the EU5

Introduction Lenalidomide is an active agent that was approved for use in the EU in 2015 as a first-line therapy for previously untreated, non-transplant eligible multiple myeloma patients. Our objective was to assess the cost impact of lenalidomide when selected as a first-line treatment for transplant-ineligible patients in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom...

Spectroscopic and Imaging Characteristics of Pigmented Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Melanoma in Patients with Skin Phototypes III and IV

Introduction Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide. Differentiating between malignant and benign skin tumors, however, can be challenging. As a result, various auxiliary tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis of cutaneous neoplasms. Here, skin tumors were investigated through analysis of their digital image histograms and spectroscopic...