JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute

http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 5,821)

Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies

Background: It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence. Methods: ...

Selenium and Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Fifteen Prospective Studies

Background: Some observational studies suggest that a higher selenium status is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer but have been generally too small to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by disease stage and grade. Methods: Collaborating investigators from 15 prospective studies provided individual-participant records (from predominantly men of ...

Comparison of EndoPredict and EPclin With Oncotype DX Recurrence Score for Prediction of Risk of Distant Recurrence After Endocrine Therapy

Background: Estimating distant recurrence (DR) risk among women with estrogen receptor–positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–negative early breast cancer helps decisions on using adjuvant chemotherapy. The 21-gene Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS) is widely used for this. EndoPredict (EPclin) is an alternative test combining prognostic information from an ...

Family History and Probability of Prostate Cancer, Differentiated by Risk Category: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

Background: Familial prostate cancer risk estimates are inflated by clinically insignificant low-risk cancer, diagnosed after prostate-specific antigen testing. We provide age-specific probabilities of non-low- and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods: Fifty-one thousand, eight hundred ninety-seven brothers of 32 807 men with prostate cancer were identified in Prostate Cancer data ...

Co-option of Liver Vessels and Not Sprouting Angiogenesis Drives Acquired Sorafenib Resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Background: The anti-angiogenic Sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, acquired resistance limits its efficacy. An emerging theory to explain intrinsic resistance to other anti-angiogenic drugs is ‘vessel co-option,’ ie, the ability of tumors to hijack the existing vasculature in organs such as the lungs or liver, thus ...

The Intestinal Microbiome and Estrogen Receptor–Positive Female Breast Cancer

The huge communities of residential microbes, including bacteria, viruses, Archaea, and Eukaryotes, that colonize humans are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in health and disease. A complex populous ecosystem, the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors up to 1011 bacterial cells per gram of luminal content, whose collective genome, the gut metagenome, contains ...

The Conundrum of Genetic “Drivers” in Benign Conditions

Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those in BRAF, RAS, EGFR, HER2, FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, CDKN2A, and NF1/2, all of which are considered ...

Cost-effectiveness of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Strategies for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase After Generic Entry of Imatinib in the United States

Background: We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of treating incident chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) with generic imatinib when it becomes available in United States in 2016. In the year following generic entry, imatinib’s price is expected to drop 70% to 90%. We hypothesized that initiating treatment with generic imatinib in these patients and then switching to ...

Use of Positron Emission Tomography to Detect Recurrence and Associations With Survival in Patients With Lung and Esophageal Cancers

Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) scans are often used in cancer patients for staging, restaging, and monitoring for treatment response. These scans are also often used to detect recurrence in asymptomatic patients, despite a lack of evidence demonstrating improved survival. We sought to evaluate utilization of PET for this purpose and relationships with survival for ...

Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ...

Whole-Body and Microenvironmental Localization of Radium-223 in Naïve and Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer Metastasis

Background: Bone-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (bmCRPC) represents a lethal stage of the most common noncutaneous cancer in men. The recent introduction of Radium-223 dichloride, a bone-seeking alpha particle (α)–emitting radiopharmaceutical, demonstrates statistically significant survival benefit and palliative effect for bmCRPC patients. Clinical results have ...

Choline Kinase Alpha as an Androgen Receptor Chaperone and Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Target

Background: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major drug target in prostate cancer (PCa). We profiled the AR-regulated kinome to identify clinically relevant and druggable effectors of AR signaling.

Relevance of Sp Binding Site Polymorphism in WWOX for Treatment Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer

Background: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested inherited genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting overall survival (OS) in advanced pancreatic cancer. To identify robust clinical biomarkers, we tested the strongest reported candidate loci in an independent patient cohort, assessed cellular drug sensitivity, and evaluated molecular effects.