Clinical and Translational Medicine

http://link.springer.com/journal/40169

List of Papers (Total 230)

Extracellular vesicles as circulating cancer biomarkers: opportunities and challenges

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, lipid-bound particles containing nucleic acid and protein cargo which are excreted from cells under a variety of normal and pathological conditions. EVs have garnered substantial research interest in recent years, due to their potential utility as circulating biomarkers for a variety of diseases, including numerous types of cancer. The...

Comparison of paired human nasal and bronchial airway epithelial cell responses to rhinovirus infection and IL-13 treatment

BackgroundBecause of its advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, nasal brushings have been increasingly used and proposed as a valuable approach to study lower airway diseases in lieu of bronchial epithelial cells. However, there is limited or conflicting evidence pertaining to whether nasal samples can be surrogates to bronchial samples. The goal of the present study is to...

Clinical lipidomics: a new way to diagnose human diseases

Lipidomics is a measurement of a large scale of lipid species to understand roles of their carbon atoms, dual bonds, or isomerism in the lipid molecule. Clinical lipidomics was recently defined “as a new integrative biomedicine to discover the correlation and regulation between a large scale of lipid elements measured and analyzed in liquid biopsies from patients with those...

The IRB structure and medical research reform

Optimal Independent Review Board (IRB) structure encompasses ongoing process improvement, ethics policies and continuous relationship building, all sound in evidence. With optimal IRB structure, a global research infrastructure will flourish. Evidence for IRB structure must be detailed and expert operational recommendations should guide. Too, health service research oversight...

Analyses of repeated failures in cancer therapy for solid tumors: poor tumor-selective drug delivery, low therapeutic efficacy and unsustainable costs

For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as...

Merging perspectives: genotype-directed molecular therapy for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and E-cadherin–EGFR crosstalk

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1; NM_004360). Male CDH1 germline mutation carriers have by the age of 80 years an estimated 70% cumulative incidence of gastric cancer, females of 56% for gastric and of 42% for lobular breast cancer. Metastatic HDGC has a poor prognosis which is...

Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease that has increased in prevalence across the world due to the aging population. Currently, physicians use a plethora of treatment strategies to try and slow down the progression of the disease, but none have been shown to ubiquitously treat and cure the disease. One of the strategies uses the high molecular weight molecule hyaluronic acid...

A perspective on multi-target drug discovery and design for complex diseases

Diseases of infection, of neurodegeneration (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), and of malignancy (cancers) have complex and varied causative factors. Modern drug discovery has the power to identify potential modulators for multiple targets from millions of compounds. Computational approaches allow the determination of the association of each compound with its target...

Anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in acute phase of ischemic stroke patients

Background Recently, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants such as direct thrombin and direct factor Xa inhibitors have been prescribed for prevention of embolic stroke. While in Japan, argatroban, also a direct thrombin inhibitor, is available for the treatment of atherothrombotic stroke patients. This study aimed to explore whether there is any differences between direct...

Does ALK-rearrangement predict favorable response to the therapy of bevacizumab plus pemetrexed in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer? Case report and literature review

Background Advanced ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients will develop acquired resistance after anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) production and tumor vessel formation were found to be more significantly enriched in ALK-rearrangement NSCLC than that in epidermal growth factor receptor or...

Cancer nanomedicine: a review of recent success in drug delivery

Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune...

Using single-cell multiple omics approaches to resolve tumor heterogeneity

It has become increasingly clear that both normal and cancer tissues are composed of heterogeneous populations. Genetic variation can be attributed to the downstream effects of inherited mutations, environmental factors, or inaccurately resolved errors in transcription and replication. When lesions occur in regions that confer a proliferative advantage, it can support clonal...

The small vesicular culprits: the investigation of extracellular vesicles as new targets for cancer treatment

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles released from almost all type of cells including cancer cells. EVs transfer their components, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), messenger RNAs, lipids and proteins, from one cell to another, affecting the target cells. Emerging evidence suggests that reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the cells in their microenvironment...

Post-zygotic genomic changes in glutamate and dopamine pathway genes may explain discordance of monozygotic twins for schizophrenia

BackgroundMonozygotic twins are valuable in assessing the genetic vs environmental contribution to diseases. In the era of complete genome sequences, they allow identification of mutational mechanisms and specific genes and pathways that offer predisposition to the development of complex diseases including schizophrenia.MethodsWe sequenced the complete genomes of two pairs of...

Heterogeneity in retinoblastoma: a tale of molecules and models

Retinoblastoma, an intraocular pediatric cancer, develops in the embryonic retina following biallelic loss of RB1. However, there is a wide range of genetic and epigenetic changes that can affect RB1 resulting in different clinical outcomes. In addition, other transformations, such as MYCN amplification, generate particularly aggressive tumors, which may or may not be RB1...

Deletion of Cdc42 in embryonic cardiomyocytes results in right ventricle hypoplasia

Background Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family and functions as a molecular switch in regulating cytoskeleton remodeling and cell polarity establishment. Inactivating Cdc42 in cardiomyocytes resulted in embryonic lethality with heart developmental defects, including ventricular septum defects and thin ventricle wall syndrome. Findings In this study, we have generated a...

Proteomics in asthma: the clinicians were right after all, were not they?

Clinical disease phenotypes with underlying information of molecular and biological signatures for the same, is a prerequisite for improving medical care and developing more effective, stratified management strategies. This commentary reviews the research carried out by Cao et al. to unravel biological networks associated with different clinical categories of asthma. It finally...

Optimization of culture conditions for rapid clinical-scale expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have broad-spectrum therapeutic effects in various diseases, and thus have many clinical applications. However, it is difficult to produce sufficient numbers of MSCs for clinical use, and improved culture systems are required. Here, we report the effects of calcium (Ca2+) and hypoxia on the proliferation of human umbilical cord blood...

Circulating microRNAs in patients with hormone receptor-positive, metastatic breast cancer treated with dovitinib

Background Serial analysis of biomarkers in the circulation of patients undergoing treatment (“liquid biopsies”) can provide new insights into drug effects. In particular the analysis of cell-free, circulating nucleic acids such as microRNAs (miRs) can reveal altered expression patterns indicative of mechanism of drug action, cancer growth, and tumor–stroma interactions. Results...

Extracellular vesicles: how they interact with endothelium, potentially contributing to metastatic cancer cell implants

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are blebs of cellular membranes, which entrap small portions of subjacent cytosol. They are released from a variety of cells, circulate in the blood for an unknown length of time and come to rest on endothelial surfaces. They contribute to an array of physiologic pathways, the complexity of which is still being investigated. They contribute to...