Current Oncology Reports

http://link.springer.com/journal/11912

List of Papers (Total 23)

Update on Treatment Options for Advanced Bile Duct Tumours: Radioembolisation for Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare form of gastrointestinal cancer with a poor prognosis. Patients often present with biliary obstruction or non-specific abdominal pain, and a high proportion of patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. The goal of this review is to discuss treatment options for patients with advanced bile duct tumours focusing on radioembolisation (RE) and ...

The Role of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer

Purpose of Review It is now accepted that prostate cancer has a low alpha/beta ratio, establishing a strong basis for hypofractionation of prostate radiotherapy. This review focuses on the rationale for hypofractionation and presents the evidence base for establishing moderate hypofractionation for localised disease as the new standard of care. The emerging evidence for extreme ...

Immunotherapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have been frustrating to treat, with slow progress made on extending survival. Immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints, T cells, and infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promise in early studies. The efficacy of pembrolizumab and nivolumab is encouraging. Anti-chemokine receptors and oncolytic viruses are also making headway against these ...

Key Roles of AXL and MER Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Resistance to Multiple Anticancer Therapies

A major challenge in anticancer treatment is the pre-existence or emergence of resistance to therapy. AXL and MER are two members of the TAM (TYRO3-AXL-MER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which, when activated, can regulate tumor cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor-host interactions. An increasing body of evidence strongly suggests ...

Cabozantinib: an Active Novel Multikinase Inhibitor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. VHL loss drives tumor angiogenesis and accounts for the clinical activity of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the first-line standard of care for advanced RCC. Within the last year, three new second-line treatments have received FDA ...

Update on Neoadjuvant Regimens for Patients with Operable Oesophageal/Gastrooesophageal Junction Adenocarcinomas and Squamous Cell Carcinomas

Survival outcomes following multimodal treatment of operable oesophageal and gastrooesophageal cancer remain disappointingly poor. Although an appreciation of the impact of both tumour location and histological subtype is now shaping the design of clinical trials, there has been a lack of consensus of the optimal neoadjuvant treatment strategy. This update article will review ...

The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: a Review

There is a common perception that excess adiposity, commonly approximated by body mass index (BMI), is associated with reduced cancer survival. A number of studies have emerged challenging this by demonstrating that overweight and early obese states are associated with improved survival. This finding is termed the “obesity paradox” and is well recognized in the cardio-metabolic ...

Study Design and Rationale for the Phase 3 Clinical Development Program of Enobosarm, a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, for the Prevention and Treatment of Muscle Wasting in Cancer Patients (POWER Trials)

Muscle wasting in cancer is a common and often occult condition that can occur prior to overt signs of weight loss and before a clinical diagnosis of cachexia can be made. Muscle wasting in cancer is an important and independent predictor of progressive functional impairment, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Although several therapeutic agents are currently in ...

What Is the Best Preoperative Imaging for Endometrial Cancer?

Although endometrial cancer is surgicopathologically staged, preoperative imaging is recommended for diagnostic work-up to tailor surgery and adjuvant treatment. For preoperative staging, imaging by transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable to assess local tumor extent, and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) and/or computed tomography ...

Radionuclide Therapies in Prostate Cancer: Integrating Radium-223 in the Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) frequently metastasizes to the bone, often resulting in painful skeletal events, reduced quality of life, and reduced survival. The beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals strontium-89 and samarium-153 alleviated pain in mCRPC patients with widespread skeletal metastases and have been associated with myelotoxicity. Radium-223, a ...

Robotic Surgery for Colon and Rectal Cancer

Robotic surgery, used generally for colorectal cancer, has the advantages of a three-dimensional surgical view, steadiness, and seven degrees of robotic arms. However, there are disadvantages, such as a decreased sense of touch, extra time needed to dock the robotic cart, and high cost. Robotic surgery is performed using various techniques, with or without laparoscopic surgery. ...

Nonsurgical Treatment for Localized Hepatocellular Carcinoma

The most common non-surgical approaches for the treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma remain hepatic artery-delivered particles laden with chemotherapy (TACE), or radioactive microparticles (TARE). External beam radiotherapy has been an effective option in many parts of the world for selected HCC patients, but now has an expanded role with stereotactic and proton beam ...

Naptumomab Estafenatox: Targeted Immunotherapy with a Novel Immunotoxin

Improvement of cancer therapy by introducing new concepts is still urgent even though there have been major advancements lately. Immunotherapy is well on the way to becoming an established tool in the cancer treatment armory. It seems that a combination of (1) activation of immune effector cells and selective targeting of them to tumors and (2) the inhibition of immune suppression ...

The Role of Radiotherapy in Endometrial Cancer: Current Evidence and Trends

Adjuvant treatment of patients with endometrial cancer is tailored to clinical-pathological prognostic factors. Pelvic radiation therapy for stage I endometrial cancer (EC) provides a highly significant improvement of local control, but without survival advantage. Low-risk EC patients have a very favorable prognosis, and should be observed after surgery. Use of adjuvant ...

Development of Second-Generation VEGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway appears to be the dominant pathway involved in tumor angiogenesis, providing a rationale for targeting the VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1, -2, and -3) in the treatment of cancers. In particular, VEGF signaling is thought to be important in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) because of the deregulation of the pathway through nearly ...

A Re-evaluation of the “Oncogenic” Nature of Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Melanoma and Other Cancers

In cancer, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is ubiquitously referred to as an “oncogenic” pathway that promotes tumor progression. This review examines how the regulation and downstream effects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer varies depending on cellular context, with a focus on malignant melanoma. We emphasize that the cellular homeostasis of Wnt/β-catenin signaling may represent a ...

Nanotechnology in Head and Neck Cancer: The Race Is On

Rapid advances in the ability to produce nanoparticles of uniform size, shape, and composition have started a revolution in the sciences. Nano-sized structures herald innovative technology with a wide range of potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. More than 1000 nanostructures have been reported, many with potential medical applications, such as metallic-, dielectric-, ...