BMC Genomics

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164

List of Papers (Total 9,613)

Comparative transcriptomics of elasmobranchs and teleosts highlight important processes in adaptive immunity and regional endothermy

Background Comparative genomic and/or transcriptomic analyses involving elasmobranchs remain limited, with genome level comparisons of the elasmobranch immune system to that of higher vertebrates, non-existent. This paper reports a comparative RNA-seq analysis of heart tissue from seven species, including four elasmobranchs and three teleosts, focusing on immunity, but ...

Enhanced transcriptomic responses in the Pacific salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi to the non-native Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar suggests increased parasite fitness

Background Outcomes of infections with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis vary considerably among its natural hosts (Salmo, Oncorhynchus spp.). Host-parasite interactions range from weak to strong host responses accompanied by high to low parasite abundances, respectively. Parasite behavioral studies indicate that the louse prefers the host Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), ...

Vitiligo blood transcriptomics provides new insights into disease mechanisms and identifies potential novel therapeutic targets

Background Significant gaps remain regarding the pathomechanisms underlying the autoimmune response in vitiligo (VL), where the loss of self-tolerance leads to the targeted killing of melanocytes. Specifically, there is incomplete information regarding alterations in the systemic environment that are relevant to the disease state. Methods We undertook a genome-wide profiling ...

Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection: implications for germplasm conservation, evaluation, and utilization in crop improvement

Background The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve conservation efforts and its utilization in research and breeding programs. ...

Distinct histone methylation and transcription profiles are established during the development of cellular quiescence in yeast

Background Quiescent cells have a low level of gene activity compared to growing cells. Using a yeast model for cellular quiescence, we defined the genome-wide profiles of three species of histone methylation associated with active transcription between growing and quiescent cells, and correlated these profiles with the presence of RNA polymerase II and transcripts. Results ...

Evolution of meiotic recombination genes in maize and teosinte

Background Meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. The role of recombination in evolution is recognized but little is known about how evolutionary forces affect the recombination pathway itself. Although the recombination pathway is fundamentally conserved across different species, genetic variation in recombination components and outcomes has ...

Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model

Background Much of the morbidity associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS) is attributed to effects of decreased enteral nutrition and administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We hypothesized that acute SBS alone has significant effects on gene expression beyond epithelial proliferation, and tested this in a zebrafish SBS model. Methods In a model of SBS in zebrafish ...

Tissue resolved, gene structure refined equine transcriptome

Background Transcriptome interpretation relies on a good-quality reference transcriptome for accurate quantification of gene expression as well as functional analysis of genetic variants. The current annotation of the horse genome lacks the specificity and sensitivity necessary to assess gene expression especially at the isoform level, and suffers from insufficient annotation of ...

Proteomics informed by transcriptomics for characterising active transposable elements and genome annotation in Aedes aegypti

Background Aedes aegypti is a vector for the (re-)emerging human pathogens dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Almost half of the Ae. aegypti genome is comprised of transposable elements (TEs). Transposons have been linked to diverse cellular processes, including the establishment of viral persistence in insects, an essential step in the transmission of vector-borne ...

Genetic structure in the Sherpa and neighboring Nepalese populations

Background We set out to describe the fine-scale population structure across the Eastern region of Nepal. To date there is relatively little known about the genetic structure of the Sherpa residing in Nepal and their genetic relationship with the Nepalese. We assembled dense genotype data from a total of 1245 individuals representing Nepal and a variety of different populations ...

Parasite infection of public databases: a data mining approach to identify apicomplexan contaminations in animal genome and transcriptome assemblies

Background Contaminations from various exogenous sources are a common problem in next-generation sequencing. Another possible source of contaminating DNA are endogenous parasites. On the one hand, undiscovered contaminations of animal sequence assemblies may lead to erroneous interpretation of data; on the other hand, when identified, parasite-derived sequences may provide a ...

Conserved gene expression in sperm reservoirs between birds and mammals in response to mating

Background Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is ...

Medium throughput bisulfite sequencing for accurate detection of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine

Background Epigenetic modifications of DNA, such as 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethycytosine, play important roles in development and disease. Here, we present a cost-effective and versatile methodology for the analysis of DNA methylation in targeted genomic regions, which comprises multiplexed, PCR-based preparation of bisulfite DNA libraries followed by customized MiSeq ...

An improved genome assembly uncovers prolific tandem repeats in Atlantic cod

Background The first Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome assembly published in 2011 was one of the early genome assemblies exclusively based on high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Since then, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have led to a multitude of assemblies generated for complex genomes, although many of these are of a fragmented nature with a significant fraction of ...

An SNP-based saturated genetic map and QTL analysis of fruit-related traits in Zucchini using Genotyping-by-sequencing

Background Cucurbita pepo is a cucurbit with growing economic importance worldwide. Zucchini morphotype is the most important within this highly variable species. Recently, transcriptome and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR)- and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based medium density maps have been reported, however further genomic tools are needed for efficient molecular breeding in ...

Genome-wide standing variation facilitates long-term response to bidirectional selection for antibody response in chickens

Background Long-term selection experiments provide a powerful approach to gain empirical insights into adaptation, allowing researchers to uncover the targets of selection and infer their contributions to the mode and tempo of adaptation. Here we implement a pooled genome re-sequencing approach to investigate the consequences of 39 generations of bidirectional selection in White ...

CNVs into the wild: screening the genomes of conifer trees (Picea spp.) reveals fewer gene copy number variations in hybrids and links to adaptation

Background Copy number variations (CNVs) have been linked to different phenotypes in human, including many diseases. A genome-scale understanding of CNVs is available in a few plants but none are wild species, leaving a knowledge gap regarding their genome biology and evolutionary role. We developed a reliable CNV detection method for species lacking contiguous reference genome. We ...

Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E

Background The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitamin E that might also be involved in meat quality. In the first treatment, seven lambs ...

The pangenome of (Antarctic) Pseudoalteromonas bacteria: evolutionary and functional insights

Background Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of ubiquitous marine bacteria used as model organisms to study the biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation to cold conditions. A remarkable feature shared by these bacteria is their ability to produce secondary metabolites with a strong antimicrobial and antitumor activity. Despite their biotechnological relevance, representatives of ...

The unique genomic landscape surrounding the EPSPS gene in glyphosate resistant Amaranthus palmeri: a repetitive path to resistance

Background The expanding number and global distributions of herbicide resistant weedy species threaten food, fuel, fiber and bioproduct sustainability and agroecosystem longevity. Amongst the most competitive weeds, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats has rapidly evolved resistance to glyphosate primarily through massive amplification and insertion of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate ...

Random X-chromosome inactivation dynamics in vivo by single-cell RNA sequencing

Background Random X-chromosome inactivation (rXCI) is important for the maintenance of normal somatic cell functions in female eutherian mammals. The dynamics of X-chromosome inactivation initiation has been widely studied by assessing embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro. To investigate the phenomenon in vivo, we applied RNA sequencing to single cells from female embryos ...

Diet, gonadal sex, and sex chromosome complement influence white adipose tissue miRNA expression

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNA species for degradation or interfering with translation. Specific miRNAs are key regulators of adipogenesis, and are expressed at different levels in adipose tissue from lean and obese mice. The degree of lipid accumulation and distribution of white adipose ...

Genomic characterization of Ensifer aridi, a proposed new species of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium recovered from Asian, African and American deserts

Background Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium). In this study, 6 strains belonging to this new clade were compared with Ensifer species at the genome-wide level. Their capacities to utilize various carbon ...

Nucleotide diversity inflation as a genome-wide response to experimental lifespan extension in Drosophila melanogaster

Background Evolutionary theory predicts that antagonistically selected alleles, such as those with divergent pleiotropic effects in early and late life, may often reach intermediate population frequencies due to balancing selection, an elusive process when sought out empirically. Alternatively, genetic diversity may increase as a result of positive frequency-dependent selection and ...

MARS: improving multiple circular sequence alignment using refined sequences

Background A fundamental assumption of all widely-used multiple sequence alignment techniques is that the left- and right-most positions of the input sequences are relevant to the alignment. However, the position where a sequence starts or ends can be totally arbitrary due to a number of reasons: arbitrariness in the linearisation (sequencing) of a circular molecular structure; or ...