Critical Care

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List of Papers (Total 15,374)

Use of noninvasive ventilation in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains a common hazardous complication in immunocompromised patients and is associated with increased mortality rates when endotracheal intubation is needed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of early noninvasive ventilation (NIV) compared with oxygen therapy alone in this patient population. Methods We searched for relevant studies in...

Is platelet transfusion associated with hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients?

Background Platelets are commonly transfused to critically ill patients. Reports suggest an association between platelet transfusion and infection. However, there is no large study to have determined whether platelet transfusion in critically ill patients is associated with hospital-acquired infection. Methods We conducted a multi-centre study using prospectively maintained...

Role of vasopressin and terlipressin in refractory shock compared to conventional therapy in the neonatal and pediatric population: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis

Background Vasopressin (AVP) and terlipressin (TP) have been used as last-line therapy in refractory shock in children. However, the efficacy and safety profiles of AVP and TP have not been determined in pediatric refractory shock of different origins. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the addition of AVP/TP therapy in pediatric refractory shock of all causes compared...

Effect of perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration on renal function following cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Background Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) have an elevated risk of renal dysfunction because of extensive systemic inflammation and use of nephrotoxic antibiotics. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated whether perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration could attenuate postoperative renal dysfunction in patients with IE undergoing cardiac...

Cholesterol levels and long-term rates of community-acquired sepsis

Background Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) recognized as risk factors for acute coronary events. Studies suggest an association between low cholesterol levels and poor outcomes in acute sepsis. We sought to determine the relationship...

Effects of low doses of esmolol on cardiac and vascular function in experimental septic shock

Background Administration of a selective β1-blocker, such as esmolol, in human septic shock has demonstrated cardiovascular protective effects related to heart rate reduction. Certain experimental data also indicate that esmolol exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and beneficial effects on vascular tone. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether a non-chronotropic dose of...

Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

Background The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Methods Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: a sham group (n = 6), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS...

Hemodynamic monitoring in the era of evidence-based medicine

Hemodynamic instability frequently occurs in critically ill patients. Pathophysiological rationale suggests that hemodynamic monitoring (HM) may identify the presence and causes of hemodynamic instability and therefore may allow targeting therapeutic approaches. However, there is a discrepancy between this pathophysiological rationale to use HM and a paucity of formal evidence...

Early-phase cumulative hypotension duration and severe-stage progression in oliguric acute kidney injury with and without sepsis: an observational study

Background Managing blood pressure in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) could effectively prevent severe-stage progression. However, the effect of hypotension duration in the early phase of AKI remains poorly understood. This study investigated the association between early-phase cumulative duration of hypotension below threshold mean arterial pressure (MAP) and severe...

Non-antibiotic treatments for bacterial diseases in an era of progressive antibiotic resistance

The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbial pathogens threatens the very foundation upon which standard antibacterial chemotherapy is based. We must consider non-antibiotic solutions to manage invasive bacterial infections. Transition from antibiotics to non-traditional treatments poses real clinical challenges that will not be easy to solve. Antibiotics will continue...

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta versus aortic cross clamping among patients with critical trauma: a nationwide cohort study in Japan

Background Measures of aortic occlusion (AO) for resuscitation in patients with severe torso trauma remain controversial. Our aim was to characterize the current use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) and resuscitative open aortic cross-clamping (ACC), and to evaluate whether REBOA should be an alternative method to resuscitative open ACC...

Immunomodulation after ischemic stroke: potential mechanisms and implications for therapy

Brain injuries are often associated with intensive care admissions, and carry high morbidity and mortality rates. Ischemic stroke is one of the most frequent causes of injury to the central nervous system. It is now increasingly clear that human stroke causes multi-organ systemic disease. Brain inflammation may lead to opposing local and systemic effects. Suppression of systemic...

Outcomes and survival prediction models for severe adult acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has known a growing interest over the last decades with promising results during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza epidemic. Targeting populations that can most benefit from this therapy is now of major importance. Survival has steadily improved for a decade, reaching up to 65% at hospital...

Perioperative statin therapy in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Background Several studies suggest beneficial effects of perioperative statin therapy on postoperative outcome after cardiac surgery. However, recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show potential detrimental effects. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the association between perioperative statin therapy and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery patients...

Association between time of discharge from ICU and hospital mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent results on whether intensive care unit (ICU) discharge at night and on weekends is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether ICU discharge time was associated with hospital mortality. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched...

Skeletal muscle quality as assessed by CT-derived skeletal muscle density is associated with 6-month mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients

Background Muscle quantity at intensive care unit (ICU) admission has been independently associated with mortality. In addition to quantity, muscle quality may be important for survival. Muscle quality is influenced by fatty infiltration or myosteatosis, which can be assessed on computed tomography (CT) scans by analysing skeletal muscle density (SMD) and the amount of...

Lung ultrasound can be used to predict the potential of prone positioning and assess prognosis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

Background It is very important to assess the effectiveness of prone positioning (PP) in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, it is difficult to identify patients who may benefit from PP. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prone positioning potential (PPP) can be predicted by lung ultrasound in patients with ARDS. Methods In...

Inhaled nitric oxide and the risk of renal dysfunction in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a propensity-matched cohort study

Background Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a rescue therapy for severe hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pooled data from clinical trials have signaled a renal safety warning for iNO therapy, but the significance of these findings in daily clinical practice is unclear. We used primary data to evaluate the risk of iNO-associated renal dysfunction...

Effect of driving pressure on mortality in ARDS patients during lung protective mechanical ventilation in two randomized controlled trials

Background Driving pressure (ΔPrs) across the respiratory system is suggested as the strongest predictor of hospital mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We wonder whether this result is related to the range of tidal volume (V T ). Therefore, we investigated ΔPrs in two trials in which strict lung-protective mechanical ventilation was applied in...