Critical Care

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List of Papers (Total 15,374)

The inflammatory response to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): a review of the pathophysiology

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technology capable of providing short-term mechanical support to the heart, lungs or both. Over the last decade, the number of centres offering ECMO has grown rapidly. At the same time, the indications for its use have also been broadened. In part, this trend has been supported by advances in circuit design and in cannulation...

The involvement of regulatory non-coding RNAs in sepsis: a systematic review

Background Sepsis coincides with altered gene expression in different tissues. Accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs are important molecules involved in the crosstalk with various pathways pertinent to innate immunity, mitochondrial functions, and apoptosis. Methods We searched articles indexed in PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and...

Limited predictability of maximal muscular pressure using the difference between peak airway pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure during proportional assist ventilation (PAV)

Background If the proportional assist ventilation (PAV) level is known, muscular effort can be estimated from the difference between peak airway pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (ΔP) during PAV. We conjectured that deducing muscle pressure from ΔP may be an interesting method to set PAV, and tested this hypothesis using the oesophageal pressure time product...

Intravascular versus surface cooling for targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – an analysis of the TTM trial data

Background Targeted temperature management is recommended after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and may be achieved using a variety of cooling devices. This study was conducted to explore the performance and outcomes for intravascular versus surface devices for targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Method A retrospective analysis of data from the...

Manual versus Automated moNitoring Accuracy of GlucosE II (MANAGE II)

Background Intravascular continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may facilitate glycemic control in the intensive care unit (ICU). We compared the accuracy of a CGM device (OptiScanner®) with a standard reference method. Methods Adult patients who had blood glucose (BG) levels >150 mg/dl and required insertion of an arterial and central venous catheter were included. The OptiScanner...

Antipsychotic prescribing patterns during and after critical illness: a prospective cohort study

Background Antipsychotics are used to treat delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) despite unproven efficacy. We hypothesized that atypical antipsychotic treatment in the ICU is a risk factor for antipsychotic prescription at discharge, a practice that might increase risk since long-term use is associated with increased mortality. Methods After excluding patients on...

Chlorhexidine bathing and health care-associated infections among adult intensive care patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Health care-associated infections (HAI) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and rates of hospital deaths (Kaye and Marchaim, J Am Geriatr Soc 62(2):306–11, 2014; Roberts and Scott, Med Care 48(11):1026–35, 2010; Warren and Quadir, Crit Care Med 34(8):2084–9, 2006; Zimlichman and Henderson, JAMA Intern Med 173(22):2039–46, 2013). Importantly...

Effects of continuous renal replacement therapy on linezolid pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics: a systematic review

Background Major alterations in linezolid pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters might be expected in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who are undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The present review is aimed at describing extracorporeal removal of linezolid and the main PK-PD parameter changes observed in critically ill...

Prognostic impact of restored sinus rhythm in patients with sepsis and new-onset atrial fibrillation

Background New-onset atrial fibrillation (NeOAF) is a common type of tachyarrhythmia in critically ill patients and is associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis. However, the prognostic impact of restored sinus rhythm (SR) in septic patients with NeOAF remains unclear. Methods A total of 791 patients with sepsis, who were admitted to a medical intensive care...

Acute kidney injury subphenotypes based on creatinine trajectory identifies patients at increased risk of death

Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. AKI is highly heterogeneous, with variable links to poor outcomes. Current approaches to classify AKI severity and identify patients at highest risk for poor outcomes focus on the maximum change in serum creatinine (SCr) values. However, these scores are hampered by the need for a reliable...

Development and validation of a prehospital prediction model for acute traumatic coagulopathy

Background Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is a syndrome of early, endogenous clotting dysfunction that afflicts up to 30% of severely injured patients, signaling an increased likelihood of all-cause and hemorrhage-associated mortality. To aid identification of patients within the likely therapeutic window for ATC and facilitate study of its mechanisms and targeted treatment...

Simultaneous assessment of the synthesis rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in inflammation and surgery

Background Better knowledge of albumin kinetics is needed to define the indications for albumin use in clinical practice. This study involved two approaches: the synthesis rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured simultaneously at different levels of plasma albumin concentration in relation to acute inflammation and surgery; and two different tracers were...

The impact of extracerebral organ failure on outcome of patients after cardiac arrest: an observational study from the ICON database

Background We used data from a large international database to assess the incidence and impact of extracerebral organ dysfunction on prognosis of patients admitted after cardiac arrest (CA). Methods This was a sub-analysis of the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) database, which contains data from all adult patients admitted to one of 730 participating intensive care units (ICUs...

Cardiac dysfunction induced by weaning from mechanical ventilation: incidence, risk factors, and effects of fluid removal

Background Weaning-induced pulmonary oedema (WiPO) is a well-recognised cause of failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation, but its incidence and risk factors have not been reliably described. We wanted to determine the incidence and risk factors in a population of critically ill patients. In addition, we wanted to describe the effects of diuretics when they are administered...

Is the glutamine story over?

Glutamine has been launched as a conditionally indispensible amino acid for the critically ill. Supplementation has been recommended in guidelines from international societies. Although data have been presented pointing out that glutamine supplementation may not be for everybody, recommendations for treatments and design of study protocols have included all critically ill...

Resting energy expenditure, calorie and protein consumption in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study

Background Intense debate exists regarding the optimal energy and protein intake for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, most studies use predictive equations, demonstrated to be inaccurate to target energy intake. We sought to examine the outcome of a large cohort of ICU patients in relation to the percent of administered calories divided by resting energy expenditure...

Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), a marker of positive fluid balance in critically ill patients: results of the ENVOL study

Background The optimal control of blood volume without fluid overload is a main challenge in the daily care of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Accordingly this study focused on the identification of biomarkers to help characterize fluid overload status. Methods Sixty-seven patients were studied from ICU admission to day 7 (D 7 ). Blood and urine samples were taken daily and...

Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review

Background Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of...