Current Atherosclerosis Reports

http://link.springer.com/journal/11883

List of Papers (Total 57)

Antioxidants in the Fight Against Atherosclerosis: Is This a Dead End?

Purpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to focus on the outcome of recent antioxidant interventions using synthetic and naturally occurring molecules established as adjuvant strategies to lipid-lowering or anti-inflammatory therapies designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.Recent FindingsTo date, accumulated evidence regarding oxidation as a pro-atherogenic...

Anticoagulation Resumption After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Purpose of reviewDecision-making on resuming oral anticoagulant (OAC) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evokes significant debate among clinicians. Such patients have been excluded from randomized clinical trials. This review article provides a comprehensive summary of the evidence on anticoagulation resumption after ICH.Recent findingsOAC resumption does not increase the risk...

Glycocalyx in Atherosclerosis-Relevant Endothelium Function and as a Therapeutic Target

Purpose of Review The cell surface-attached extracellular glycocalyx (GCX) layer is a major contributor to endothelial cell (EC) function and EC-dependent vascular health and is a first line of defense against vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight our findings regarding three GCX-dependent EC functions, which are altered when GCX is shed and in...

Genetics of Triglycerides and the Risk of Atherosclerosis

Purpose of ReviewPlasma triglycerides are routinely measured with a lipid profile, and elevated plasma triglycerides are commonly encountered in the clinic. The confounded nature of this trait, which is correlated with numerous other metabolic perturbations, including depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has thwarted efforts to directly implicate triglycerides...

The Role of Emerging Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Outcomes

Purpose of Review This review discusses the recent evidence for a selection of blood-based emerging risk factors, with particular reference to their relation with coronary heart disease and stroke. Recent Findings For lipid-related emerging risk factors, recent findings indicate that increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular risk...

Role of the Gut on Glucose Homeostasis: Lesson Learned from Metabolic Surgery

Purpose of Review Bariatric surgery was initially intended to reduce weight, and only subsequently was the remission of type two diabetes (T2D) observed as a collateral event. At the moment, the term “metabolic surgery” is used to underline the fact that this type of surgery is performed specifically to treat diabetes and its metabolic complications, such as hyperlipidemia...

Genetic Research and Women’s Heart Disease: a Primer

Purpose of Review This review provides a brief synopsis of sexual dimorphism in atherosclerosis with an emphasis on genetic studies aimed to better understand the atherosclerotic process and clinical outcomes in women. Such studies are warranted because development of atherosclerosis, impact of several traditional risk factors, and burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) differ...

Bempedoic Acid (ETC-1002): an Investigational Inhibitor of ATP Citrate Lyase

Bempedoic acid (ETC-1002), a novel therapeutic approach for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, inhibits ATP citrate lyase (ACL), an enzyme involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Although rodent studies suggested potential effects of ACL inhibition on both fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, studies in humans show an effect only on cholesterol...

Why Is Apolipoprotein CIII Emerging as a Novel Therapeutic Target to Reduce the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease?

ApoC-III was discovered almost 50 years ago, but for many years, it did not attract much attention. However, as epidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies have associated apoC-III with low levels of triglycerides and decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has emerged as a novel and potentially powerful therapeutic approach to managing dyslipidemia and...

Role of cis-Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

The effects of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and on CHD mortality are not clear. Also, dietary recommendations for cis-MUFA as derived by various organizations are not in agreement. Earlier studies have mainly focused on the effects of cis-MUFA on serum lipids and lipoproteins. More recent studies, however, have also...

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI to Study Atherosclerotic Plaque Microvasculature

Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque of the carotid artery is an important underlying cause of clinical ischemic events, such as stroke. Abundant microvasculature has been identified as an important aspect contributing to plaque vulnerability. Plaque microvasculature can be studied non-invasively with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI in animals and patients. In...

PET Imaging of Atherosclerotic Disease: Advancing Plaque Assessment from Anatomy to Pathophysiology

Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. It is now widely recognized that the disease is more than simply a flow-limiting process and that the atheromatous plaque represents a nidus for inflammation with a consequent risk of plaque rupture and atherothrombosis, leading to myocardial infarction or stroke. However, widely used conventional clinical imaging...

Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool’s Gold or Gold Mine? Part II: Novel Niacin Mimetics

Two cardiovascular outcome trials established niacin 3 g daily prevents hard cardiac events. However, as detailed in part I of this series, an extended-release (ER) alternative at only 2 g nightly demonstrated no comparable benefits in two outcome trials, implying the alternative is not equivalent to the established cardioprotective regimen. Since statins leave a significant...

Thyroid Hormone Mimetics: the Past, Current Status and Future Challenges

The association between thyroid hormone status and plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol has raised the awareness for the development of thyroid hormone mimetics as lipid-lowering agents. The discovery of the two main types of thyroid hormone receptors (α and β) as well as the development of novel combinatorial chemistry providing organ specificity has drastically...

Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool’s Gold or Gold Mine? Part I: Alternative Niacin Regimens

Niacin was the first drug demonstrating lowered cholesterol prevents coronary heart disease (CHD) events, with two clinical CHD outcome studies establishing a cardioprotective niacin regimen: 1 g thrice daily with meals. Though cardioprotective, skin toxicity limits niacin’s use, fostering several variations to improve tolerability. One of these, an extended-release (ER...

MicroRNA Biomarkers for Coronary Artery Disease?

MicroRNA (miRNA, miR) measurements in patients with coronary heart disease are hampered by the confounding effects of medication commonly used in cardiovascular patients such as statins, antiplatelet drugs, and heparin administration. Statins reduce the circulating levels of liver-derived miR-122. Antiplatelet medication attenuates the release of platelet-derived miRNAs. Heparin...

Statin Intolerance: the Clinician’s Perspective

Muscle problems and other adverse symptoms associated with statin use are frequent reasons for non-adherence and discontinuation of statin therapy, which results in inadequate control of hyperlipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. However, most patients who experience adverse symptoms during statin use are able to tolerate at least some degree of statin therapy. Given the...

The Obese Brain—Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Energy Balance Neurocircuitry

Obesity is a highly prevalent disease in the world and with a major impact on global health. While genetic components are also involved in its pathogenesis, in recent years, it has shown a critical role of the innate and adaptive immune cell response in many tissues triggered by excess of nutrients such as lipids and glucose. Free fatty acids and other nutrient-related signals...

Sex Differences in the Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Outcomes in IHD

Heart disease is the number one killer of women. Although there are many similarities between men and women, the evolving understanding of ischemic heart disease in women allow us to emphasize the important differences that need to be recognized. These differences, including symptoms at presentation, importance of particular risk factors, pathophysiology of disease, and...

Copeptin—Marker of Acute Myocardial Infarction

The concentration of copeptin, the C-terminal part of pro-arginine vasopressin, has been shown to increase early after acute and severe events. Owing to complementary pathophysiology and kinetics, the unspecific marker copeptin, in combination with highly cardio-specific troponin, has been evaluated as an early-rule-out strategy for acute myocardial infarction in patients...

Renal Artery Stenosis—When To Screen, What To Stent?

Renal artery stensosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully...

Non-Invasive Imaging for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Patients with peripheral artery disease are at high risk of coronary artery disease. An increasing number of studies show that a large proportion of patients with peripheral artery disease have significant coronary atherosclerosis, even in the absence of symptoms. Although the reported prevalence of subclinical coronary artery disease varies widely in patients with peripheral...