Current Atherosclerosis Reports

http://link.springer.com/journal/11883

List of Papers (Total 57)

Adiposopathy, “Sick Fat,” Ockham’s Razor, and Resolution of the Obesity Paradox

Among lean populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rare. Among those with increased adiposity, CVD is the commonest cause of worldwide death. The “obesity paradox” describes seemingly contrary relationships between body fat and health/ill-health. Multiple obesity paradoxes exist, and include the anatomic obesity paradox, physiologic obesity paradox, demographic obesity...

Oxidized PLs and Vascular Inflammation

Oxidized PLs (OxPLs) generated in health and disease are now recognized as important mediators of cellular signalling. There is an increasing body of evidence showing that PL peroxidation is not only increased in vascular disorders, but is also a physiological event of relevance to coagulation, innate immunity, and self-tolerance. Nonenzymatically formed OxPLs generated during...

Modulation of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase as a Strategy to Reduce Vascular Inflammation

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which initial vascular damage leads to extensive macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. Although acutely glucocorticoids suppress inflammation, chronic glucocorticoid excess worsens atherosclerosis, possibly by exacerbating systemic cardiovascular risk factors. However, glucocorticoid action within the lesion may reduce...

GPR109A and Vascular Inflammation

GPR109A has generated expanding interest since its discovery as the receptor for niacin a decade ago, along with deorphanisation as the receptor for endogenous ligand 3-hydroxy-butyrate shortly after. This interest is generated especially because of the continuing exploration of niacin’s “pleiotropic” mechanisms of action and its potential in the “cross-talk” between metabolic...

International Epidemiology of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage is the second most common subtype of stroke. In recent decades our understanding of intracerebral hemorrhage has improved. New risk factors have been identified; more knowledge has been obtained on previously known risk factors; and new imaging techniques allow for in vivo assessment of preclinical markers of intracerebral hemorrhage. In this review the...

Molecular Pathways Regulating Macrophage Polarization: Implications for Atherosclerosis

Recent years have seen a tremendous development of our insight into the biology of atherosclerosis and its acute thrombotic manifestations. Inflammation now takes center stage among traditional risk factors as a decisive factor in cardiovascular risk. Consequently, its assessment and modulation have become key to clinical care and fundamental research alike. Plaque macrophages...

MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Myocardial Infarction

MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation by binding to the 3′ untranslated region of a messenger RNA (mRNA), thereby inhibiting the translation or inducing mRNA destabilization. MiRs are generally considered to act as intracellular mediators essential for normal cardiac function, and their deregulated expression profiles...

Diabetes and Hypertension: Is There a Common Metabolic Pathway?

Diabetes and hypertension frequently occur together. There is substantial overlap between diabetes and hypertension in etiology and disease mechanisms. Obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance are thought to be the common pathways. Recent advances in the understanding of these pathways have provided new insights and perspectives. Physical activity plays an...

A Review of the Rationale for Additional Therapeutic Interventions to Attain Lower LDL-C When Statin Therapy Is Not Enough

Statins alone are not always adequate therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein (LDL) goals in many patients. Many options are available either alone or in combination with statins that makes it possible to reach recommended goals in a safe and tolerable fashion for most patients. Ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants reduce cholesterol transport to the liver and can be used in...

Genetic Testing for Early Detection of Individuals at Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Monitoring Response to Therapy: Challenges and Promises

Coronary heart disease (CHD) often presents suddenly with little warning. Traditional risk factors are inadequate to identify the asymptomatic high-risk individuals. Early identification of patients with subclinical coronary artery disease using noninvasive imaging modalities would allow the early adoption of aggressive preventative interventions. Currently, it is impractical to...

The High-Risk Plaque Initiative: Primary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events in the Asymptomatic Population

The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested...

Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein—Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall macrophage-to-feces RCT, knockout of both HL and EL leaves RCT essentially unaffected. With...

Role of Phospholipid Transfer Protein in High-Density Lipoprotein– Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) describes the process whereby cholesterol in peripheral tissues is transported to the liver where it is ultimately excreted in the form of bile. Given the atherogenic role of cholesterol accumulation within the vessel intima, removal of cholesterol through RCT is considered an anti-atherogenic process. The major constituents of RCT include cell...

Utility of Atherosclerosis Imaging in the Evaluation of High-Density Lipoprotein–Raising Therapies

Decreased level of high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a rigorous predictor for future cardiovascular events. Much effort is being made to develop HDL-C–raising pharmacotherapies in the attempt to avert the pandemic of atherosclerotic disease. Important properties by which HDL-C–raising compounds are effective involve improvement of cholesterol uptake from macrophages...

Genome-Wide Association Studies in Atherosclerosis

Cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is complex and multifactorial. Because the phenotype of cardiovascular disease often shows a marked heritable pattern, it is likely that genetic factors play an important role. In recent years, large genome-wide association studies have been conducted to decipher the molecular...

Statin Therapy in Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension Post-JUPITER: What is the Value of CRP?

Much evidence supports a pivotal role for inflammation in atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation in humans, is a cardiovascular risk marker and may also promote atherogenesis. CRP levels are increased in metabolic syndrome and hypertension and confer increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients in these subgroups. Statins have been...

The Anti-Ischemic and Anti-Anginal Properties of Statins

Angina pectoris resulting from myocardial ischemia afflicts half of all patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Chronic angina remains a major public health burden despite state-of-the-art therapies, and improvement in survival from myocardial infarction and CHD has only increased its prevalence. There is growing experimental and clinical evidence pointing to the anti...

Approach to Dyslipidemia, Lipodystrophy, and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with HIV Infection

There is a significant prevalence (20%–80% depending on the population and the study) of lipid disorders and other cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV infection. This review focuses on HIV and HIV treatment–associated metabolic and cardiovascular concerns, including dyslipidemias, lipodystrophy syndromes, endothelial dysfunctions, and associated metabolic events...

Alpha-Linolenic Acid: Is It Essential to Cardiovascular Health?

There is a large body of scientific evidence that has been confirmed in randomized controlled trials indicating a cardioprotective effect for omega-3 fatty acids from fish. For alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the omega-3 fatty acid from plants, the relation to cardiovascular health is less clear. We reviewed the recent literature on dietary ALA intake, ALA tissue...

Saturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Modulation by Replacement Nutrients

Despite the well-established observation that substitution of saturated fats for carbohydrates or unsaturated fats increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in humans and animal models, the relationship of saturated fat intake to risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans remains controversial. A critical question is what macronutrient should be used to...