Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/

List of Papers (Total 4,041)

Freezing Strip Loin and Top Round Steaks Improves Warner-Bratzler Shear Force

Postmortem aging of steaks is a common practice used to improve tenderness of beef steaks. The impact of proteolysis and improvement in tenderness due to aging varies among muscles. When designing research protocols, samples for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) are often frozen for later analysis because of convenience and time limitations. Freezing stops postmortem aging and...

Freezing Improves Instrumental Tenderness of Strip Steaks Purchased at Retail Grocery Stores

When meat is frozen cell membranes can be damaged, which may lead to lower water holding capacity and higher cooking losses. Several researchers have indicated that freezing Longissimus muscle (strip loin) steaks may lower Warner-Bratzler shear force, a measurement to objectively measure beef tenderness, compared with steaks not previously frozen. The objective of this study was...

Premium Choice Steaks Purchased from Grocery Outlets Are Generally More Tender Throughout the Year than Lower Quality Grade Steaks

Consumers typically have the opportunity to select steaks from a variety of marketing categories that relate to quality, price, and expected tenderness. Research on quantifying characteristics of strip steaks from different marketing programs available in self-serve retail display cases and establishing benchmark data for strip steak comparisons for future years is needed. The...

Ruminally-Protected Lysine (SafeGain) Improves Performance of Growing Beef Cattle

Lysine frequently is cited as the first-limiting amino acid for cattle diets. Synthetic lysine, while routinely added to pig diets, is ineffective in fulfilling lysine requirements of cattle due to extensive degradation by microbes within the rumen. Lysine can be encapsulated with compounds, such as saturated fats, that minimize degradation by ruminal microbes, thereby assuring...

Supplemental Zinc Sulfate Affects Growth Performance of Finishing Heifers

Zinc is an essential mineral required for normal function of more than 300 enzymes in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Zinc-requiring enzymes participate in metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates, all of which are essential for growth of cattle. In addition, zinc is necessary for normal development and function of the immune system. The requirement for zinc...

Effects of Altering Supplementation Frequency During the Pre-Partum Period of Beef Cows Grazing Dormant Native Range

Spring-calving beef cattle that are grazing low-quality (< 7% crude protein) dormant forage typically are unable to meet their maintenance requirements for protein. Providing a protein supplement (> 30% crude protein) is recommended to decrease losses of body weight and body condition. Nutrient supplementation when forage quality is poor or limited is one of the largest...

Effects of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning on Vigor of the Noxious Weed Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) in the Kansas Flint Hills

Sericea lespedeza (SL) was introduced into the United States from Asia in the late 19th century. Early land managers recognized that SL was adaptable; tolerant of shallow, acidic or low-fertility soils; and resistant to insects and disease. This combination of traits made SL a widely-used plant for reseeding strip-mined lands, highway right-ofways, dams, and waterways in the US...

Delayed Insemination of Non-Estrual Beef Heifers in 7-day CO-Synch Timed Artificial Insemination

Reproductive performance in cattle is considered to be the most economically important trait and is essential for the success of an operation. In the last decade, timed artificial insemination (AI) in the beef cattle industry has increased in popularity due to the decreased amount of labor required for estrous detection. To increase the use of AI; however, cost and time inputs...

Effects of Intensive Late-Season Sheep Grazing Following Early-Season Steer Grazing on Population Dynamics of Sericea Lespedeza in the Kansas Flint Hills

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; SL) is a high-tannin, invasive forb in the Tallgrass Prairie ecosystem. In Kansas, sericea lespedeza infests 980 square miles of pasture, primarily in the Flint Hills region. Sericea lespedeza infestations reduce native grass production by up to 92% through a combination of aggressive growth, prolific reproduction, canopy dominance, and...

Breed and Gender Interact to Affect the Sale Price of Beef Calves Sold through Video Auctions from 2010 through 2014

In recent years, the sale prices of beef calves have increased on average, in part due to tighter supply of beef calves and generally strong demand for beef products by consumers. Historically, research has demonstrated beef calf sale price to be influenced by a variety of calf management factors and characteristics. The opportunity to comprehensively evaluate some of these...

Breeding Objectives Indicate Value of Genomics for Beef Cattle

Genomics may have much to offer in the implementation of breeding objectives. Advantages of genomic prediction include increased accuracy of expected progeny differences (EPDs) for traits that have been components of routine genetic evaluations. Perhaps more importantly, genomic prediction makes it possible to include traits that are too costly or too difficult to measure, and...

Use of Evaporative Cooling Systems and Their Effects on Core Body Temperature and Lying Times in Lactating Dairy Cattle

A study was performed to assess the effect of an evaporative cooling system on respiration rates, rear udder temperature (Tu), core body temperature (CBT), and resting time in lactating dairy cows. Cows were divided into two treatment groups and rotated between two facilities. Cows were either housed in a bedded pack barn (PACK) equipped with an evaporative cooling system...

The Why’s, What’s, and How’s of Timed Artificial Insemination Programs

This report summarizes the benefits of using timed artificial insemination (AI) programs in lactating dairy cows. Since its beginnings, use of Ovsynch has penetrated the dairy industry and is most prevalent in the Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. The timed AI program benefits farms that have difficulties with heat detection. Heat detection challenges can occur because of...

Effects of Dietary Fat Source on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed a Pre-mixed Concentrate

Inclusion of a pre-blended concentrate (OneTrak®, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) in the total mixed ration (TMR) for dairy cows can simplify the daily mixing of dietary ingredients. A cow’s response to fat supplementation can be affected by other dietary ingredients; however, little is known about production responses to dietary fat in diets with high concentrations of non-forage fiber...

Effects of Cobalt Source on Rate and Extent of Dry Matter and Fiber Degradation in Vitro

Positive effects on fiber degradation have been observed when supplemental cobalt was fed to ruminants. This study tested the effects of cobalt carbonate (CoCarb) and cobalt glucoheptonate (CoGH) at different concentrations on in vitro fermentation rate, fermentation end-product concentrations, and degradation of feed dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. Compared to CoCarb...

Guanidinoacetic Acid as a Precursor of Creatine for Cattle

Creatine serves as an energy-storing molecule in muscle, and in mammals it can be synthesized in the liver from guanidinoacetic acid (GAA). With this study, we evaluated whether GAA supplementation would lead to creatine production in cattle similarly to other species. Because the synthesis of creatine from GAA requires the use of a methyl group, we also evaluated the effect of...

Spinning Straw into Milk: Can an All- Byproduct Diet Support Milk Production?

Ruminants are able to consume feeds that are unsuitable for humans and monogastric animals, and thus contribute to increased efficiency of our food systems. This study evaluated the performance of dairy cows consuming a diet comprised almost entirely of byproduct feeds, compared with cows consuming a typical lactation diet. The hypothesis was that the byproduct diet could support...

Dairy Research 2015 Supplements

Kansas State University is pleased to present the 2015 Dairy Research Report of Progress.

The New Safety Net: Dairy Margin Protection Program Participation and Payouts

The Dairy Margin Protection Program created by the 2014 Farm Bill offers a new risk management option available for dairy producers. By “insuring” a margin between the price of milk and the cost of feed inputs, producers can have protection from declining milk prices, rising feed costs, or both. More than half of the dairies in the U.S. participated in at least the catastrophic...

Evaluating an Ultrasonic Flaw Detector-Based Method to Characterize Solubility of Whey Protein Concentrate

One of the important characteristics of powders is their ability to quickly break down and disperse. Currently, the dairy foods industry does not have a reproducible method that can quantify this behavior. A previously developed method for an ultrasonic flaw detector was used to see if an ultrasound could characterize the dissolution of whey protein concentrate with a protein...

Swine Day 2015 Supplements

It is with great pleasure that we present the 2015 Swine Industry Day Report of Progress. This report contains updates and summaries of applied and basic research conducted at Kansas State University during the past year. We hope that the information will be of benefit as we attempt to meet the needs of the Kansas swine industry.

Influence of Carcass Fat Iodine Value and Packaging Type on Shelf-life of Bacon Slices Packaged for Hotels, Restaurants, and Institutions (HRI)

Pork carcasses were selected for fat iodine value (IV) using a NitFom™ sensor. Carcasses were sorted into 3 IV categories, with the target IV range defined as 58 to 63 (low), 68 to 73 (intermediate), and 78 to 83 (high). Seventy-two pork carcasses were identified and bellies collected from both the right and left sides of the carcass for a total of 144 bellies in the study, with...

Nursing Reduction Strategies to Enhance Estrus in Lactating Sows and Effects on Performance of Pigs to Market Weight

A total of 135 sows (PIC 1050), ranging from parity 1 to 5 (2.6 ± 1.4), were used in 5 consecutive farrowing groups (February to August). The objectives were to evaluate different suckling reduction strategies for inducing lactational estrus and the effects on sow fertility and piglet growth. Litter size was equalized within parity (11.5 ± 1.1 piglets) at d 2 after farrowing. At...

Application of Alternative Floor Space Prediction Equations using Microsoft Excel®

The following information is related to the use of a spreadsheet tool designed to estimate the growth rate of finishing pigs provided varying floor space allowances. The spreadsheet is broken into four sections: 1) the adjustment observation section, 2) the estimate input section, 3) the database range information, and 4) the predicted performance output. Sections 1 and 2 allow...