Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/

List of Papers (Total 559)

Effects of a grind & mix high nutrient density diet on starter pig performance

Two 4-wk growth trials utilizing 520, 21-d old weanling pigs (22 ± 2 d and 13.7 lb) were conducted to evaluate either grind either pelleted or meal form) formulated with ingredients having greater flowability characteristics in order to determine if pelleting is necessary for pigs fed high nutrient density diets. Each trial was split into two identical phases, with Phase I being ...

The effects of an "ideal protein

Four hundred lactating sows were used to determine the influence of an ideal protein lactation diet on sow productivity. Sows were fed either a 15.8% crude protein, corn soybean meal, control diet or a 12.6% protein diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids to a 15.8% crude protein equivalent. Lactation diet had no influence on litter weaning wt (114.5 vs 114.7 lb), daily feed ...

The effect of pre-weaning exposure to soybean meal on subsequent post-weaning growth performance in the early-weaned pig

Two hundred and forty pigs averaging 11.3 lb and 21 d of age were utilized to determine the effect of pre-weaning exposure to soybean meal on nursery performance. Pigs were derived from sows that were fed either a soybean meal based- or a corn gluten meal based-diet throughout gestation and lactation. Across sow treatments, pigs were stomach-infused with 6 g/d of soybean meal or ...

Effects of porcine somatotropin and dietary phosphorus on growth and bone criteria in gilts

One hundred-eight gilts with an average initial wt of 129 lb were utilized to determine the effects of porcine somatotropin (pST) and dietary phosphorus on growth performance and bone mineralization and mechanical properties during the finishing phase (129 to 230 lb) and a 35 d post-finishing phase. Gilts were injected daily with placebo (control) or 4 mg pST and fed diets ...

Extrusion processing of low-inhibitor soybeans improves growth performance of nursery pigs fed protein-adequate diets

One hundred fifty weanling pigs (15.4 lb avg initial wt) were used in a 35-d growth assay to determine the effects of processing method (roasting in a Roast-A-Tron roaster vs extrusion in an Insta-Pro extruder) on nutritional value of soybeans with (+K) and without (-K) gene expression for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Treatments were: 1) soybean meal with added soybean oil; 2) +K ...

Evaluation of porcine blood meal and plasma bovine plasma, and meat extract as replacement protein sources for dried skim milk in starter swine diets

One-hundred fifty pigs averaging 21 ± 2 d of age were utilized in a 35 d growth assay to determine the efficacy of replacing the dried skim milk portion of a high nutrient-dense diet with four commercially available animal blood or meat co-products. Pigs were blocked by weight and allotted by ancestry and sex to provide six pens (five pigs/pen) per dietary treatment. Diets were ...

Use of agronomic conditions, genetics, and processing to improve utilization of sorghum grain

Sorghum grain is an extremely important crop to both farmers and livestock feeders in the High-Plains states (e.g., from Nebraska to Texas). Kansas leads the nation in sorghum production, and as should be expected, Kansas State University has a long history of research to improve the utilization and marketability of this versatile and hardy crop. This paper is a synopsis of current ...

Effects of a grind & mix high nutrient density diet on starter pig performance

Two 4-wk growth trials utilizing 520, 21-d old weanling pigs (22 ± 2 d and 13.7 lb) were conducted to evaluate either grind either pelleted or meal form) formulated with ingredients having greater flowability characteristics in order to determine if pelleting is necessary for pigs fed high nutrient density diets. Each trial was split into two identical phases, with Phase I being ...

Extrusion of sorghum, soybean meal, and whole soybeans improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs

One hundred forty-four finishing pigs (124 lb avg initial wt) were used to determine the effects of extruding sorghum, soybean meal (SBM), and whole soybeans on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were: 1) control diet with ground sorghum, SBM, and soybean oil; 2) diet 1 with the ground sorghum, SBM, and soybean oil blended and extruded; 3) sorghum and whole ...

Effects of porcine somatotropin and dietary phosphorus on growth and bone criteria in gilts

One hundred-eight gilts with an average initial wt of 129 lb were utilized to determine the effects of porcine somatotropin (pST) and dietary phosphorus on growth performance and bone mineralization and mechanical properties during the finishing phase (129 to 230 lb) and a 35 d post-finishing phase. Gilts were injected daily with placebo (control) or 4 mg pST and fed diets ...

On-farm feed uniformity survey

An on-farm feed manufacturing survey was conducted in conjunction with a mixer uniformity analysis. The survey collected information on producer size and type of operation, mixer type, manufacturing practices, and feed production. The survey represents 43 participants from across the U.S. Results indicate that 42% of the participants had mixer uniformity coefficients of variation ...

Evaluation of a portable mixer and feed delivery system

An on-farm mixer uniformity study was conducted to determine if feed could be properly mixed and maintained as it went through a bulk bin and conveying equipment over a distance of 180 ft. in a grower-finisher facility. A portable vertical mixer was tested and found to produced a uniformly mixed feed. Uniform feed was then conveyed from a bulk storage bin to feeders inside the ...

Producing hogs under contract

Recently, there has been a renewed interest in contract hog production. Contractors are looking for an effective means to expand production or utilize excess feed production capacity. Producers enter contracts to minimize input cost and market risks or to obtain financing for buildings and equipment. Provisions vary from contract to contract. Producers that are making the decision ...

Monensin levels in a steam-flaked milo finishing diet with 4% added fat

Response to monensin (Control, 12.5, or 25 g/ton, air dry basis) by yearling steers fed a diet with 4% added fat was evaluated. For the entire study (104 d), daily gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency were unaffected (P>.25) by monensin. These results are in general agreement with some of our previous reports of diminished animal response to ionophores in fat-supplemented ...

Timing of trenbolone acetate implants on performance, carcass characteristics, and beef quality of finishing steer calves

Angus and Angus-cross calves (632 lb) were utilized in a finishing study to evaluate the effects of implanting with estradiol and progesterone (Synovex-S®) and(or) trenbolone acetate (Finaplix®) on performance of finishing steers. Over the entire finishing period (117 d), implanted steers had higher (P<.05) daily gains and were more efficient than nonimplanted steers. Carcasses ...

Comparison of Synovex-S® and steer-oid® in finishing yearling steers

Synovex-S (SS) and STEER-oid (SO) were compared in a 122-d finishing study. No differences were observed over the entire study for animal performance or carcass traits. However, in the final period (d 91-122), steers implanted with SO gained 8.4% faster (P=.17) and 8.7% more efficiently (P=.10) than steers implanted with SS, suggesting that estradiol payout in this period was less ...

Top spoilage losses in horizontal silos in western Kansas

The top 3 feet from 30 horizontal silos was sampled at three depths to determine top spoilage losses, using ash content as an internal marker. When compared to face samples, corn and forage sorghum silages exhibited similar additional organic matter (OM) losses in the top 18 inches. In the top 18 inches, covering silage reduced spoilage losses of OM from 41 to 27 percentage units ...

Dehydrated alfalfa pellets and soybean meal/grain sorghum in step-up winter supplementation programs for spring-calving beef cows

The performance response to a stepwise increase in the level of supplement fed to cows across the winter supplementation period was studied by feeding 112 Hereford x Angus cows the following treatments: dehydrated alfalfa pellets (DEHY) or soybean meal/grain sorghum (SS), each either level-fed (constant daily amount from December 1 to calving) or fed in a step-up program (low level ...

Validation of real-time ultrasound technology for predicting fat thicknesses and ribeye areas of Brangus bulls from four months to two years of age

Sixty Brangus bulls were evaluated live with two real-time ultrasound instruments to estimate ribeye area (REA) and 12th rib fat thickness (FT) every 4 mo beginning at 4 mo and 12 mo of age, respectively, and continuing until 24 mo of age. At each evaluation period 10 bulls were slaughtered to determine actual REA and FT. Scanned mean FT was accurate (P.05) between the two ...

Utilization of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for prediction of the nutritional composition of beef and pork samples

Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) offers the potential for rapid, low-cost analyses of meat samples. Beef and pork samples were analyzed by both standard laboratory (AOAC) methods and NIRS. Regression equations were developed to relate the two methods. Coefficients of determination between NIRS and AOAC results were .929 for dry matter, .965 for crude protein, and .996 ...

Improving on-farm mixing efficiency

Particle size reduction has a great impact on efficiency of feed utilization. Decreasing particle size improves digestibility of nutrients by increasing surface area and allowing for greater interaction with digestive enzymes. In addition, particle size reduction can influence how uniformly feed is mixed and potential for segregation of ingredients. Mixing equipment and times also ...

Effects of daily administration of porcine somatotropin on performance of growing pigs (55 to 130 lb)

Sixty crossbred barrows initially weighing 55.7 lb were used to evaluate six experimental treatments during a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs received one of three levels of dietary lysine (1.0, 1.5, or 2.0%) and were injected daily with either 3 mg porcine somatotropin (pST) or placebo. During the first 2 wk of the trial, there was no effect from either pST injection or increasing level ...

The effects of dietary threonine and porcine somatotropin dosage on nitrogen balance in finishing swine

Fifteen crossbred barrows were utilized to determine the effects of porcine somatotropin (pST) administration in combination with increasing dietary threonine levels on nitrogen retention and growth performance. Barrows averaging 147.3 lb were allotted in a split-plot arrangement with pST dosage (0, 4, or 8 mg/d) as the whole plot, and dietary threonine level (.45, .55, .65, .75, ...

Price discovery and basis risk for live hogs

The short- and long-run daily price relationships between cash and futures markets for live hogs were examined over the 1975-89 period. Price discovery generally originates in the futures market with about 65% of new information being passed from the futures to the cash market. However, at times, especially during large price moves that are not necessarily anticipated in the ...

Litter size for gilts fed higher levels of folic acid and Riboflavin during gestation

We fed gilts diets containing either additional folic acid throughout gestation (1.5 g/ton, 4.5 lb/gilt daily), additional riboflavin (100 mg/gilt daily) from d 4 to 10 of gestation, both folic acid and riboflavin, or neither supplement All diets provided all KSU recommended allowances for all other nutrients. Neither farrowing rate nor litter size was affected by the treatments.; ...