Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/

List of Papers (Total 1,614)

Supplementing fructose-based block supplements to forage-fed cattle increases capacity for lactic acid metabolism

Acidosis is one of the more important maladies afflicting cattle fed significant amounts of grain and has enormous economic impact for feedlots, dairies, and producers of seed stock. The highest incidence of acidosis occurs when animals are being transitioned from high-roughage diets to diets containing high levels of concentrates. When grain-based diets are consumed in excess, ...

Capacity of the bovine intestinal mucus and its components to support Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth

Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of human food products is a major concern for the beef industry. The pathogens responsible for outbreaks often originate from cattle, and E. coli O157:H7 can thrive in healthy cattle. To control contamination in the food chain, it is essential to understand how this pathogen is able to grow and compete with other bacteria in the ...

Urea recycling in beef cattle fed prairie hay- based diets

Maximizing utilization of native rangeland is an important aspect of the cow/calf phase of beef production. Native rangeland is often of poor quality (less than 7% crude protein). Protein content of the rangeland is important because nitrogen is a key growth factor used by ruminal microbes. Without adequate nitrogen, the ruminal ecosystem will not operate at peak efficiency, which ...

Effects of extended Zilpaterol-HCl withdrawal on performance and carcass traits of finishing beef heifers

Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro; DE) is an orally active β2-adrenergic agonist that is approved for use in feedlot cattle at the rate of 7.56 g/ton of diet dry matter for the final 20 to 40 days on feed. The minimum withdrawal time for Zilmax is 3 days. Zilmax increases hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, primarily as a result of ...

Initial heifer body composition has little impact on response to Zilmax

Using a growth promotant at the correct time of finishing is critical for maximizing profit potential. Previous studies have shown that zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro, DE) improves carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine effects of prior body composition on subsequent changes in carcass weight, fatness, and ...

High sulfur content in distillers grains alters ruminal fermentation and diet digestibility in beef steers

Requirements for elemental sulfur in feedlot diets have been established to be approximately 0.15% with a maximum upper threshold of 0.40% of diet dry matter. Feeding ethanol fermentation by-products, such as distillers grains with solubles, that are high in sulfur can result in dietary sulfur levels that exceed the recommended maximum. Previous studies indicated that dietary ...

Botanical composition of diets grazed by beef cows in the Kansas Flint Hills during winter

Analysis of microscopic plant fragments recovered from the gut of wild herbivores (i.e., microhistological analysis) has been used to estimate diet composition, but there is debate as to whether microhistological analysis of fecal samples is an appropriate method for characterizing diets of grazing beef cattle. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether this approach could ...

Round bale alfalfa processing method affects heifer growth but does not influence wastage or eating preference

Many factors affect forage quality, including moisture level at baling, compaction, bulk density, and maturity at harvest. Losses of dry matter and nutrient value occur during field curing. Hay baled at or above 18% moisture should have less nutrient loss in the field. However, hay baled at these moisture levels has the potential to heat during storage, causing dry matter loss and ...

Precutting round alfalfa and cornstalk bales decreases time and fuel required for bale breakup in a vertical mixer

Properly mixing and distributing nutrients throughout a ration can be equally as important as including them in the formulation. Many factors, including forage type, particle length, and mixer type, affect the homogeneity of total mixed rations. Particle size plays an important role in digestion and animal performance and, therefore, is an important consideration from harvest ...

Long-term CIDR program for synchronization of estrus in beef heifers produces acceptable AI pregnancy rates

Routinely achieving pregnancy rates greater than 50% with fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) in heifers has been difficult. The Beef Reproduction Task Force recently added the intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR)-Select to its list of recommended fixed-time AI protocols. Research and field trials in Missouri have achieved AI pregnancy rates in the range of 55% to ...

Beta acid extracts of hops have a modest effect on ruminal metabolism and apparent total tract digestibility by steers fed high- concentrate diets

Hops have been used for centuries to control bacterial contamination in beer production. Today, α acids are extracted from hops for use in flavoring beer, leaving residues that are rich in beta acids. Beta acid fractions of hops can selectively inhibit specific ruminal Gram-positive bacteria that are responsible for major digestive disturbances, such as acidosis and bloat, and have ...

Round bale alfalfa processing method does not influence feeding or mixing characteristics in a total mixed ration

Nutritionists and producers often assume that ingredients in a total mixed ration are uniformly mixed. However, many factors may affect ration homogeneity, including particle size, shape, and density and mixer discharge location. Forages are often ground prior to mixing in a total mixed ration to reduce variation in forage particle length. However, preprocessing forages while ...

Implant programs affect performance and quality grade

Selection of dosage, timing, and number of anabolic implants continues to be a source of controversy for feed yard managers and their consultants. Although the dose-dependent effects on performance are fairly well accepted, impacts on carcass quality continue to be debated. This study was intended to summarize effects of different implant programs on performance and carcass quality ...

Capacity of the bovine intestinal mucus and its components to support Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth

Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of human food products is a major concern for the beef industry. The pathogens responsible for outbreaks often originate from cattle, and E. coli O157:H7 can thrive in healthy cattle. To control contamination in the food chain, it is essential to understand how this pathogen is able to grow and compete with other bacteria in the ...

Comparison of medicinal feed additives on health and growth performance of beef calves grazing native grass pasture

Optimizing growth rate is an important contributor to overall profitability for stocker cattle grazing native Flint Hills pasture. Disease challenges from pinkeye and foot rot have traditionally been problems that compromise health and productivity of stocker cattle in this grazing region. Use of medicinal feed additives as a part of a supplementation program may prevent health ...

K-State Turfgrass Research 2009

Turfgrass Research 2009 contains results of projects conducted by K-State faculty and graduate students. Some of these results will be presented at the Kansas Turfgrass Field Day on August 6, 2009, at the John C. Pair Horticultural Center in Wichita, KS. Articles in this Report of Progress summarize research projects that were completed recently or will be completed in the next ...

Feed additives for swine: Fact sheets – acidifiers and antibiotics

Feed additives are non-nutritive products used in swine diets to improve production efficiency and performance. If chosen carefully and used properly, feed additives can be effective and can help increase the profi tability of pig production. Not all feed additives are the same or provide a benefi cial response and, therefore, choosing a product will depend on the farm’s specific ...

Feed additives for swine: Fact sheets – carcass modifiers, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and proteases, and anthelmintics

There is increasing consumer demand for leaner and healthier pork products. Improvements in genetics, new technologies, and increased understanding of nutrition have become instrumental in helping producers meet this demand. Continued research also has led to the development of products that can be included in swine diets as carcass modifiers. A dietary carcass modifier is broadly ...

Effects of ractopamine HCl dose and treatment period on pig performance in a commercial finishing facility

Objective: To evaluate effects of ractopamine HCl (RAC) dose and treatment period on growth performance and carcass composition in a commercial finishing environment. Materials and methods: In Experiment One, a total of 880 pigs (PIC L337 × C22; initially 106.5 ± 0.5 kg) were allotted to four treatments, including doses of 0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 ppm of RAC for 21 days before ...

Economic impact of removing pigs before marketing on the remaining pigs’ growth performance

The economic impact of removing the heaviest pigs (topping) before marketing a finishing group and the effect of topping on performance of the remaining pigs were determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, a total of 1,126 pigs (BW = 241 lb; 25 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: topping 0, 2, or 4 pigs/pen 15 d before marketing the remaining pigs in the group. After ...

Determination of amino acid digestibility and calculated energy values in high-protein sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles in growing pigs

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids (AA) and energy in high-protein sorghum dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). Six growing barrows (initially 50 lb) surgically fitted with T-cannulas were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2-period crossover design. The treatments were a diet with the high-protein sorghum DDGS (50% of ...

Effects of increasing hominy feed in diets on finishing pig performance

A total of 1,035 finishing pigs (initially 79.4 lb) were used in an 84-d growth trial to evaluate the effects of increasing hominy feed on finishing pig growth performance. Pens of pigs were blocked by average initial pig BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 pens per treatment) with initial weights balanced across the treatment groups. Treatments were ...

Effects of mycotoxin binders and a liquid immunity enhancer on the growth performance of wean-to-finish pigs

A total of 1,120 pigs (PIC 337 × C22, initial BW = 16.0 lb) were used in a study to evaluate the effects of 2 commercial mycotoxin binders and a liquid immunity enhancer product on growth performance of wean-to-finish pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments balanced by initial average BW within gender with 10 replicate pens per treatment. Treatments were: (1) ...

Effects of porcine circovirus type 2 and mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines on nursery pig performance

A total of 360 weanling barrows (PIC 1050, 21 d of age and 13.0 lb) were used in a 35-d study to evaluate the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) vaccines on nursery pig growth performance. Two commercial PCV2 vaccines were evaluated in this study: (1) a 2-dose product, Circumvent PCV (Circumvent; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, ...

Efficacy of different commercial phytase sources and development of a phosphorus release curve

Two experiments used 184 pigs (PIC, 22.7 and 21.3 lb BW, respectively) to develop an available P (aP) release curve for commercial phytase products. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs were fed a basal diet (0.06% aP) and 2 levels of added aP from inorganic P (monocalcium P) to develop a standard curve. In Exp. 1, 100, 175, 250, or 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg OptiPhos (Enzyvia LLC, Sheridan, IN) ...