Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/

List of Papers (Total 3,033)

Performance of Beef Replacement Heifers Supplemented With Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles Versus a Mixture of Soybean Meal and Finely Ground Sorghum Grain

Costs of feed, labor, and equipment to develop heifers in a traditional confined feeding system are relatively high. Producers can greatly reduce input costs by developing heifers on dormant native range; however, heifers are unable to consume sufficient protein from the forage base. Suboptimal protein intake will reduce forage digestion and result in poor performance. Supplemental ...

Corn Response to Foliar-Applied Zinc Fertilizers

This study was conducted to determine corn response to three foliar-applied zinc sources. The study was conducted on dryland corn in Manhattan, KS, during the 2014 growing season. Yields were low as a result of very low precipitation during pollination and grain fill. There was no yield response to foliar-applied Zn; however, grain analysis show significant increases in grain Zn ...

Lactipro (Megasphaera elsdenii) Increases Ruminal pH and Alters Volatile Fatty Acids and Lactate During Transition to an 80% Concentrate Diet

Direct-fed microbials commonly have been used to enhance performance or to decrease shedding of foodborne pathogens in beef cattle. Megasphaera elsdenii is a recently introduced probiotic bacteria marketed under the trade name Lactipro (MS-Biotec Inc., Wamego, KS) and is a key lactate-fermenting bacterium in the rumens of cattle fed high-concentrate diets. Megasphaera elsdenii is ...

Corn Yield Response to Plant Populations

Corn hybrid development with a focus on drought tolerance has emerged in recent years, and producers have questions about their yield performance across a range of plant populations. A two-year study was conducted to determine the yield of corn hybrids across several plant populations. Corn hybrids responded differently in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, a lower yield environment occurred. ...

Breaking Corn Yield Barriers: A Cropping Systems Approach

A corn research trial was conducted at Scandia, KS, during the 2014 growing season. The objective was to study the contribution of different farming systems in developing efficient and high-yielding corn production systems. The experiment had five treatments: farmer practices, comprehensive fertilization, production intensity, ecological intensification, and advanced plus. Farmer ...

Influence of Different Seeding Dates on Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Forage Yield and Nutritive Value

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is used as medicinal plant in many Asian countries and has been reported to have forage quality similar to alfalfa. Fenugreek is an annual crop and may have the potential to diversify forage production systems in the central High Plains. This study evaluated forage dry matter (DM) production and the nutritive value of three fenugreek ...

Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization Effects on Camelina Sativa in West Central Kansas

Camelina sativa is early maturing and possesses characteristics that make it a good fit as a rotation crop in dryland wheat cropping systems. Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) play very important roles in oilseed production, including camelina. This study was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to determine N and S rates necessary for optimum camelina production in West Central Kansas. The ...

Long-Term Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization of Irrigated Corn

Long-term research shows that phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer must be applied to optimize production of irrigated corn in western Kansas. In 2014, N applied alone increased yields 58 bu/a, whereas P applied alone increased yields only 12 bu/a. Nitrogen and P applied together increased yields up to 152 bu/a. This is slightly above the 10-year average, where N and P ...

Long-Term Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization of Irrigated Grain Sorghum

Long-term research shows that phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer must be applied to optimize production of irrigated grain sorghum in western Kansas. In 2014, N applied alone increased yields 49 bu/a, whereas N and P applied together increased yields up to 81 bu/a. Averaged across the past 10 years, N and P fertilization increased sorghum yields up to 73 bu/a. Application ...

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iron Chelates in Managing Iron Deficiency Chlorosis in Grain Sorghum

Grain sorghum production in alkaline or calcareous soils is frequently affected by iron (Fe) chlorosis. Soil conditions such as high pH, high free calcium carbonate (lime), and low organic matter favor development of iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), which can delay crop maturity and reduce yields. Two field experiments were conducted in the summer of 2014 to determine the ...

Hops Βeta-Acid Extract Yields Feedlot Performance Similar to Rumensin

Hops (Humulus lupulus) have played an integral role in beer manufacturing and are widely known for their antimicrobial and preservative properties. α-acids of hops are extracted and utilized to enhance beer flavor, leaving residues largely composed of β-acids. Beta-acid extracts of hops are structurally similar to ionophores and may express ionophore-like traits. Ionophores, ...

Using Estrus-Detection Patches to Vary Time of Insemination Improves Pregnancy Rates Compared with One Single Timed Insemination

Timed artificial insemination (TAI) of beef cows at a predetermined time is a management tool that reduces labor costs associated with conventional heat detection before insemination. Multiple research trials have examined timing of the individual components of the developed protocols associated with TAI. The 7-day CO-Synch + progesterone insert (controlled internal drug release; ...

An Injectable Trace Mineral Supplement in Yearling Bulls Causes a Short-Term Increase in Circulating Trace Mineral Levels But Does Not Improve Sperm Quality

Proper trace mineral supplementation is necessary for reproductive development and function. Supplementation with various trace minerals has been shown to improve overall sperm quality and morphology and increase the percentage of live sperm. When developing beef bulls, it is necessary to meet trace mineral requirements to ensure proper reproductive success. An injectable trace ...

Genetic Variance and Covariance Components for Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, and Postweaning Gain in Growing Beef Cattle

Feed is the greatest cost for a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficiency of animals is also costly, because both gain and intake records are needed to calculate feed efficiency. Electronic intake monitoring systems such as GrowSafe or Insentec to collect feed intake data are expensive and thus limit the number of animals that can be tested. ...

Dietary Chromium Propionate Combined with Yeast Minimally Affects Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Finishing Steers

Chromium (Cr) is an essential micromineral that serves to increase absorption of glucose from blood by potentiating the action of insulin. The ability to increase glucose tolerance could lead to more efficient use of glucose and ultimately to improved growth and efficiency. In addition, Cr may be beneficial in improving the immune response of cattle that are subjected to periods of ...

Value and Use of Artificial Insemination by Beef Producers

Artificial insemination and estrous synchronization remain underutilized by U.S. beef producers. The most recent National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (NAHMS 2007–08) reported that 7.6% of producers used artificial insemination and 7.9% used estrous synchronization. The most common reason cited for not using these reproductive technologies was time and labor, followed by cost ...

Evaluation of Calcium Hydroxide-Treated Stover (Second Crop) in Receiving and Growing Diets and Effects on Cattle Performance

Production of ethanol from corn as an alternative fuel source has significantly affected the pricing landscape for corn as an energy source for livestock. As ethanol usage has become more prevalent, corn prices have become more volatile, especially in critical corn-growing areas that have been affected by drought. Consequently, many beef cattle feeders have become interested in ...

Grain Sorghum Yield Response to Water Availability

Yield effects of irrigation on sorghum and corn were compared, but this report is merely focused on the sorghum phase of the crop rotation. Mean yield for irrigated sorghum was 168 bu/a, whereas dryland yield was 145 bu/a. The latter represents a yield improvement of 24 bu/a, an increase of approximately 2 bu/a per unit (in.) of water applied (considering a total of 11 in. of water ...

Genetic Improvement Made Through DNA Testing and Artificial Insemination to High- Growth, High Carcass Value Angus Sires

The beef industry has improved the recording of pedigrees and performance data through the use of breed associations and herd health databases. Constant evaluation of genetics and performance has allowed producers to make more informed breeding decisions that help improve herd productivity. As a result of recent droughts and elevated feed and grain prices, however, the American ...

Late-Season Nitrogen Fertilizer Application in Soybean

Field experiments were conducted at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field near Scandia, KS, in the summer of 2014 to evaluate effect of late-season nitrogen (N) fertilizer application on modern soybean genotypes under dryland and irrigated environments. The main objective was to determine if the N application late in the season has an agronomical benefit to soybean producers. A ...

Tillage and Nitrogen Placement Effects on Yields in a Short-Season Corn/Wheat/Double-Crop Soybean Rotation

In 2013, late planting resulted in corn yields that were less than 100 bu/a. Nitrogen (N) placement did not affect yields in the higher-yielding conventional tillage system, but knifing tended to result in greater yield in reduced and no-till systems.

Seeding Rates and Fertilizer Placement to Improve Strip-Till and No-Till Corn

In 2013, late planting resulted in corn yields that were less than 110 bu/a. Yields were not increased with seeding rates above 26,000/a, but a small increase in yield was obtained with knife applications of fertilizer nitrogen (N) compared with dribble.

Surface Runoff Characteristics from Claypan Soil in Southeastern Kansas Receiving Different Plant Nutrient Sources and Tillage

Preliminary results show that two-year average total nitrogen (N) runoff losses and ortho-phosphorus (P) and total P runoff losses in the second year were greater with N-based turkey litter/no-till applications than P-based turkey litter or fertilizer-only applications. Incorporation of turkey litter applied based on N requirements resulted in N and P losses that did not differ ...