Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/

List of Papers (Total 3,033)

Crop Production Summary, Southeast Kansas – 2016

Crop production in southeast Kansas is summarized from variety trials and research plot experiments conducted at the Southeast Research and Extension Center fields in 2016.

Comparison of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements for Cows Grazing Tall Fescue

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two sources of organic trace mineral and two sources of magnesium supplementation on cow performance of springcalving cows on K31 endophyte-infected fescue. The two treatments were organic trace minerals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn)) offered free choice as an amino-acid chelate with magnesium (Mg) as an amino ...

Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance

A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > ...

Effects of Interseeding Ladino Clover into Tall Fescue Pastures of Varying Endophyte Status on Grazing Performance of Stocker Steers

Sixty-four yearling steers grazing tall fescue pastures were used to evaluate the effects of fescue cultivar and interseeding ladino clover on grazing gains and available forage. Fescue cultivars evaluated were high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ and ‘MaxQ.’ Steers that grazed pastures of low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ gained ...

Evaluation of Supplemental Energy Source for Grazing Stocker Cattle

A total of 108 steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental energy source on available forage, grazing gains, subsequent finishing gains, and carcass characteristics in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Supplementation treatments evaluated were: no supplement, a supplement with starch as the primary source of energy, and a supplement with fat as ...

Effects of Supplementation with Corn or Dried Distillers Grains on Gains of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures

A total of 90 heifer calves grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to compare supplementation with 0.5% of body weight per head daily of corn or dried distillers grains (DDG) in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of heifers supplemented with corn or DDG were similar (P > 0.05).

Relationship Between Trauma Sustained at Unloading and Carcass Bruise Prevalence in Finished Cattle at Commercial Slaughter Facilities

Bruising in cattle can be an indicator of poor animal welfare, as well as a significant cause of economic loss due to decreased carcass value. Previous literature suggests sources of trauma causing bruising in beef carcasses include horn prevalence, rough transport conditions, cattle handling techniques, cattle temperament, and vehicle design; however, evidence of correlations ...

Bulls Are More Efficient Than Steers with Similar Meat Quality

Bull breeding soundness evaluations are often performed as a critical component of beef cow herd management to ensure that herd bulls have adequate semen quality, are physically capable of enduring the breeding season, and to determine the serving capacity per bull. Currently, there are approximately 30.3 million beef cows and 2.1 million bulls in the U.S. Depending on the breeding ...

Angus Ground Beef Has Higher Overall Consumer Acceptability than Grass-Fed Ground Beef

Ground beef is considered one of the major sources of animal protein in the U.S., accounting for approximately 40% of beef consumption per capita (USDA, 2011). Consumers’ concern about animal welfare, sustainable production, and low fat products has influenced purchasing decisions, resulting in an increased demand for grass-fed ground beef (U.S. Department of Agriculture, ...

Coarse Marbled Beef is Juicier and More Flavorful Than Fine or Medium Marbled Beef

Beef palatability and eating experience is driven primarily by U.S. Department of Agriculture quality grade and marbling levels. Beef USDA quality grade consists of both marbling levels and maturity. Conventionally, marbling texture has not been a consideration of quality grades. Currently, only one study has assessed the effects of marbling texture on beef palatability. Despite ...

Marbling Texture Does Not Affect Consumer Preference of Beef Strip Loin Steaks

In the beef industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture quality grades and marbling levels have long been associated with beef palatability and eating experience. Marbling score and maturity are the two major components of USDA quality grade. Traditionally, marbling texture has not been considered a factor of marbling score; however, there are often discernments at both the packer and ...

Tenderness, Juiciness, and Flavor Contribute to the Overall Consumer Beef Eating Experience

Overall beef palatability can be attributed to three primary traits, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, as well as the interaction among these traits (Smith and Carpenter, 1974). Multiple authors have worked to identify which of these palatability traits contributes the most to overall eating satisfaction and have historically identified tenderness as the most important ...

Brahman Genetics Negatively Impact Protein Degradation and Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum Steaks, but do Not Influence Collagen Cross-Linking

Beef tenderness is an important factor contributing to consumer eating satisfaction of beef products. Tenderness is dependent on several factors including: breed-type, postmortem age time, myofibrillar muscle protein degradation, and collagen content. During the past 30 years, numerous studies have indicated steaks from cattle with a greater percentage of Brahman genetics are ...

Steak Location Within the Semitendinosus Muscle Impacts Metmyoglobin Accumulation on Steaks During Retail Display

Beef color is a major attribute consumers utilize to make purchasing decisions. It is estimated poor color shelf-life of beef steaks costs the meat industry more than $1 billion annually. Shelf-life color is influenced by a balance of two biochemical processes within steaks: metmyoglobin reducing ability and oxygen consumption. Steaks that exhibit a greater metmyoglobin reducing ...

Particle Size of Dry-rolled Corn Affects Starch Digestibility but Not Feedlot Performance

Dry-rolling corn is a common practice in feedlots located in the Midwestern and Northern Plains regions of the United States. Optimizing total digestive tract starch utilization in diets containing dry-rolled corn is essential for maximizing efficiency. However, recommendations often suggest that grain be coarsely cracked to avoid producing an excessive amount of fine material that ...

Evaluation of Trace Mineral Sources on Newly Arrived Stocker Cattle

Light weight stocker calves experience variable degrees of physiological and psychological stressors as they are assembled from various marketing points and transported to their destination. Susceptibility to disease in young, long hauled calves is greatly enhanced and the consequence of sickness is a major cause for poor production outcomes. Enhanced nutritional trace mineral ...

Feeding a Novel Trace Mineral at Lower Levels to Grazing Stocker Cattle Does Not Impair Performance

When grazing stocker cattle on native Flint Hills pasture, optimizing growth rate is important in determining overall profitability. The correct selection of mineral supplements is an important decision that can be used to help promote overall productivity during a grazing season.

Twenty-four Hour Holter Monitoring in Finishing Cattle Housed Outdoors

Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, in the form of Holter monitoring, has been used in human and veterinary medicine for decades as an aid in the diagnosis and determination of appropriate therapy of heart rhythm disturbances. Within veterinary medicine, Holter monitors have been primarily used in companion animal species, yet little attention has been given to food animal ...

Prevalence of Horns in a Pen Does Not Affect Incidence of Carcass Bruising in Feedlot Cattle

Disbudding and dehorning are two common practices done to remove horns from cattle to prevent injury to handlers and other cattle and to reduce bruising of carcasses. Bruised carcasses result in substantial reduction in profit due to trim loss, increased sanitation risk, and loss in time on the rail during processing. Previous research has indicated that cattle with horns increased ...

Differences in Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, and Tulathromycin as Metaphylactic Treatments in High Risk Calves for Bovine Respiratory Disease

The cost of Bovine Respiratory Disease to the beef industry due to death, poorer conversions, and therapy is estimated to cost more than $3 billion per year. Identifying and mitigating Bovine Respiratory Disease in cattle can be difficult due to the increased susceptibility for Bovine Respiratory Disease in high risk cattle. One management option to minimize an outbreak of ...

Survey of Cattle Feedlot Facilities in the High Plains Region of the United States

Defining the appropriate dimensions and type of feeding facilities for feedlot cattle fed in outdoor pens is important because the characteristics of these facilities have a significant impact on the performance, welfare, and health of cattle housed in those facilities, as well as a considerable impact on the final cost of the project. Although multiple sources can be found in the ...

Antioxidant Feeding Does Not Impact Incidence or Severity of Liver Abscesses

Liver abscesses are a large source of economic loss in feedlot cattle. Not only do liver abscesses lead to a decrease in feedlot performance, but these livers are condemned in the abattoir and can also lead to a further decrease in carcass value due to trim loss. Tylosin phosphate is a metaphylactic macrolide drug that effectively decreases the occurrence of liver abscesses. The ...

Producer Opinions on Antibiotic Use in the Beef Industry

Antibiotic use in the beef industry is of increasing interest to consumers and has become a point of discussion for producers, veterinarians, and professional scientists in recent years. With the vast amount of information available on the internet and social media, consumers are becoming more knowledgeable about beef production practices and the use of antibiotics in the food ...

Intermittent Feeding of Tylan Reduces Use of In-Feed Antibiotics While Still Controlling Incidence of Liver Abscesses in Finishing Steers

Liver abscesses are a cause of concern for many feedlots across the country as they lead to a decrease in feedlot performance of finishing cattle as well as a decrease in the final carcass value. Loss in carcass value is due to not only the abscessed liver being condemned, but also due to trim loss associated with the condemned liver. The macrolide drug tylosin phosphate is the ...