Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/

List of Papers (Total 559)

Effects of xylanase in growing-finishing diets varying in dietary energy and fiber on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility

A total of 576 pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050, 106 lb initial BW) were used in a 75-d trial to evaluate effects of xylanase (Porzyme 93010; Danisco Animal Nutrition, St. Louis, MO) in growing-finishing diets varying in dietary energy and fiber on growth perfor- mance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 ...

Effects of abrupt changes between mash and pellet diets on growth performance in finishing pigs

A total of 200 finishing pigs (average initial BW of 132.3 lb) were used in a 58-d growth assay to determine the effects of an abrupt change from mash to pellets and pellets to mash on growth performance and carcass measurements. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block with 5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. There were 4 treatments with 2 phases of diets ...

Roundup 2011

Roundup is the major beef cattle education and outreach event sponsored by the Agricultural Research Center-Hays. The 2011 program is the 98th staging of Roundup. The purpose is to communicate timely, applicable research information to producers and extension personnel. The research program of the Agricultural Research Southeast Agricultural Research Center Center-Hays is dedicated ...

Effects of supplementing methionine and lysine in a lactation diet containing high concentrations of corn by-products

Ninety-six lactating Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of using commercial supplements to supply additional lysine and methionine in diets containing large proportions of corn by-products. Cows were assigned to 1 of 8 pens. Pens were offered rations formulated to differ in metabolizable lysine and methionine supply. The study was divided into 2 periods. During period ...

Voluntary intake of prairie hay contaminated with sericea lespedeza (lespedeza cuneata) by beef cows

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) is a noxious weed that infests approximately 600,000 acres of native tallgrass range in the Kansas Flint Hills. Intake of sericea lespedeza by grazing beef cattle is poor due to the presence of condensed tannins in the plant. Condensed tannins reduce protein digestion by beef cattle and may decrease plant palatability because of their ...

Supplementing dried distillers grains with solubles to heavy yearling stocker cattle grazing native tallgrass pastures during late summer and fall improves animal performance and carcass characteristics

Grazing stocker cattle on low-quality forages is a common practice in Kansas; however, animal performance typically is modest. Due to the increasing availability of ethanol co-products, producers may be able to use dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a protein source to help increase body weight of stocker cattle grazing native tallgrass pastures during the late summer ...

Length of weaning period but not timing of vaccination affects feedlot finishing performance and carcass characteristics of fall-weaned, ranch-direct beef calves

Bovine respiratory disease decreases profitability associated with cattle feeding. The cost of respiratory disease includes death loss, expenses associated with treatment, and reduced growth performance. Respiratory disease also decreases carcass weights, USDA quality grade, and ribeye area of feedlot cattle. Decreased carcass weights, fat thickness, and ribeye area have been ...

Feed additives for swine: Fact sheets – flavors and mold inhibitors, mycotoxin binders, and antioxidants

Under the conditions of modern swine production, pigs need to be fed a balanced diet that meets their daily nutritional requirement for maintenance, growth, and reproduction. However, nutrient intake is largely determined by voluntary feed intake, which is greatly influenced by the chemical senses of olfaction and taste. Thus, it is essential to make sure that diets being offered ...

Evaluation of deleting crystalline amino acids from low-CP, amino acid-fortified diets on growth performance of nursery pigs from 15 to 25 lb

A total of 294 nursery pigs (PIC TR4 x 1050, initially 15.2 lb, 3 d postweaning) were used in a 28-d trial to evaluate the effects on growth performance of eliminating specific crystalline amino acids from a low-CP, amino acid-fortified diet. On d 3 after weaning, pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. A 2-phase diet series was used, with treatment diets fed from d 0 to ...

Effect of increasing standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio on growth performance of 15- to 25-lb nursery pigs

A total of 294 nursery pigs (PIC TR4 x 1050, initially 15.1 lb, 3 d postweaning) were used in a 28-d growth trial to evaluate the effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine ratio on growth performance. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. A 2-phase diet series was used, with treatment diets fed from d 0 to 14 and a common diet fed from d 14 to 28. ...

The importance of defining the method in particle size analysis by sieving

The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) publishes a standard for identifying particle size by sieving (ASABE S319.4). However, this standard includes a number of options that allow the test to be conducted differently, and different laboratories may analyze a single sample with different results. Options include the type of sieve shaker used, the use ...

Packaging systems and storage times serve as post-lethality treatments for Listeria monocytogenes on whole muscle beef jerky

Following several outbreaks involving Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service required that processors of these products implement post-processing intervention strategies for controlling L. monocytogenes. The USDA defines a postlethality treatment as a process that reduces L. ...

Increased concentrations of bovine intestinal mucus encourage growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7

Cattle have been implicated as carriers of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Contamination of the beef supply by E. coli O157 can occur during harvest and processing, causing costly recalls or human illness. Many interventions have been applied in attempts to prevent contamination of carcasses in processing plants, such as development of HACCP procedures, carcass washes, ...

Capacity of the bovine intestinal mucus and its components to support Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth

Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of human food products is a major concern for the beef industry. The pathogens responsible for outbreaks often originate from cattle, and E. coli O157:H7 can thrive in healthy cattle. To control contamination in the food chain, it is essential to understand how this pathogen is able to grow and compete with other bacteria in the ...

Urea recycling in beef cattle fed prairie hay- based diets

Maximizing utilization of native rangeland is an important aspect of the cow/calf phase of beef production. Native rangeland is often of poor quality (less than 7% crude protein). Protein content of the rangeland is important because nitrogen is a key growth factor used by ruminal microbes. Without adequate nitrogen, the ruminal ecosystem will not operate at peak efficiency, which ...

Effects of extended Zilpaterol-HCl withdrawal on performance and carcass traits of finishing beef heifers

Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro; DE) is an orally active β2-adrenergic agonist that is approved for use in feedlot cattle at the rate of 7.56 g/ton of diet dry matter for the final 20 to 40 days on feed. The minimum withdrawal time for Zilmax is 3 days. Zilmax increases hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, primarily as a result of ...

Initial heifer body composition has little impact on response to Zilmax

Using a growth promotant at the correct time of finishing is critical for maximizing profit potential. Previous studies have shown that zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro, DE) improves carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine effects of prior body composition on subsequent changes in carcass weight, fatness, and ...

Botanical composition of diets grazed by beef cows in the Kansas Flint Hills during winter

Analysis of microscopic plant fragments recovered from the gut of wild herbivores (i.e., microhistological analysis) has been used to estimate diet composition, but there is debate as to whether microhistological analysis of fecal samples is an appropriate method for characterizing diets of grazing beef cattle. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether this approach could ...

Round bale alfalfa processing method affects heifer growth but does not influence wastage or eating preference

Many factors affect forage quality, including moisture level at baling, compaction, bulk density, and maturity at harvest. Losses of dry matter and nutrient value occur during field curing. Hay baled at or above 18% moisture should have less nutrient loss in the field. However, hay baled at these moisture levels has the potential to heat during storage, causing dry matter loss and ...

Long-term CIDR program for synchronization of estrus in beef heifers produces acceptable AI pregnancy rates

Routinely achieving pregnancy rates greater than 50% with fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) in heifers has been difficult. The Beef Reproduction Task Force recently added the intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR)-Select to its list of recommended fixed-time AI protocols. Research and field trials in Missouri have achieved AI pregnancy rates in the range of 55% to ...

Feed additives for swine: Fact sheets – acidifiers and antibiotics

Feed additives are non-nutritive products used in swine diets to improve production efficiency and performance. If chosen carefully and used properly, feed additives can be effective and can help increase the profi tability of pig production. Not all feed additives are the same or provide a benefi cial response and, therefore, choosing a product will depend on the farm’s specific ...

Effects of mycotoxin binders and a liquid immunity enhancer on the growth performance of wean-to-finish pigs

A total of 1,120 pigs (PIC 337 × C22, initial BW = 16.0 lb) were used in a study to evaluate the effects of 2 commercial mycotoxin binders and a liquid immunity enhancer product on growth performance of wean-to-finish pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments balanced by initial average BW within gender with 10 replicate pens per treatment. Treatments were: (1) ...

Efficacy of different commercial phytase sources and development of a phosphorus release curve

Two experiments used 184 pigs (PIC, 22.7 and 21.3 lb BW, respectively) to develop an available P (aP) release curve for commercial phytase products. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs were fed a basal diet (0.06% aP) and 2 levels of added aP from inorganic P (monocalcium P) to develop a standard curve. In Exp. 1, 100, 175, 250, or 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg OptiPhos (Enzyvia LLC, Sheridan, IN) ...

Effects of dietary astaxanthin on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs

A total of 48 barrows (initially 215 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary astaxanthin (0, 5, 10, and 20 ppm) on late-finishing pig performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 26-d experiment. Pigs were fed simple corn-soybean meal-based diets. Treatments consisted of a control ...