BMC Developmental Biology

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-213X

List of Papers (Total 892)

The essential requirement of an animal heme peroxidase protein during the wing maturation process in Drosophila

Background Thus far, a handful of genes have been shown to be related to the wing maturation process in insects. A novel heme peroxidase enzyme known as curly suppressor (Cysu)(formerly CG5873), have been characterized in this report because it is involved in wing morphogenesis. Using bioinformatics tools we found that Cysu is remarkably conserved in the genus Drosophila (>95...

Embryogenesis in the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines is independent of host-derived hatching stimulation

Background Many parasites regulate their development to synchronize their life cycle with a compatible host. The parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines displays incomplete host-mediated hatching behavior wherein some H. glycines individuals hatch only in the presence of a host-derived cue while others hatch in water alone. Furthermore, H. glycines shows variable hatching behavior...

Changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 during the anadromous spawning migration in Coilia nasus

Background An increase in the activity of the pituitary-gonad axis (PG-axis) and gonad development are essential for the onset of spawning migration in teleosts. In the fish Coilia nasus, gonad development and spawning migration up the Yangtze River occurs by the end of each summer. We hypothesized that gonadotropin releasing hormones receptor 2 (GnRH-R2), which together produce...

Microarray analysis reveals a potential role of LncRNAs expression in cardiac cell proliferation

Background Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified to play important roles in epigenetic processes that underpin organogenesis. However, the role of LncRNAs in the regulation of transition from fetal to adult life of human heart has not been evaluated. Methods Immunofiuorescent staining was used to determine the extent of cardiac cell proliferation. Human LncRNA...

Diversity of human and mouse homeobox gene expression in development and adult tissues

Background Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking. Results Here we...

Left-right axis asymmetry determining human Cryptic gene is transcriptionally repressed by Snail

Background Establishment of the left-right axis is important for positioning organs asymmetrically in the developing vertebrate-embryo. A number of factors like maternally deposited molecules have emerged essential in initiating the specification of the axis; the downstream events, however, are regulated by signal-transduction and gene-expression changes identifying which remains...

Expression of ribosomopathy genes during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis

Background Because ribosomes are ubiquitously required for protein production, it was long assumed that any inherited defect in ribosome manufacture would be embryonically lethal. However, several human congenital diseases have been found to be associated with mutations in ribosome biogenesis factors. Surprisingly, despite the global requirement for ribosomes, these...

Mice lacking the conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) display increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones during embryonic development

Background Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of...

Lack of effects of ooplasm transfer on early development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer bison embryos

Background Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear...

Distinct shape-shifting regimes of bowl-shaped cell sheets – embryonic inversion in the multicellular green alga Pleodorina

Background The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types. The volvocine green microalgae form a group of genera closely related to the genus Volvox within the order Volvocales...

BMP-SMAD signalling output is highly regionalized in cardiovascular and lymphatic endothelial networks

Background Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP...

Dynamics of nuclear receptor gene expression during Pacific oyster development

Background Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes...

Generation and characterization of a novel transgenic mouse harboring conditional nuclear factor-kappa B/RelA knockout alleles

Background Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development, inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer. The 65 kDa RelA subunit is the major transcriptional activator of the NF-kB pathways. Whole-body deficiency of RelA leads to massive apoptosis of liver hepatocytes and death in utero. To study...

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Hace1 is required for early embryonic development in Xenopus laevis

Background HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. It has been shown that one of the targets of HACE1 is the GTP-bound form of the small GTPase Rac1. However, the role of HACE1 in early development remains unknown. Results In situ hybridization revealed that Xenopus laevis hace1 is...

Impairment of Wnt11 function leads to kidney tubular abnormalities and secondary glomerular cystogenesis

Background Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open. The presence of Wnt11 in the emerging tubular system suggests that it may have certain roles later in the development of the...

Cilia are required for asymmetric nodal induction in the sea urchin embryo

Background Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula...

BRG1 interacts with GLI2 and binds Mef2c gene in a hedgehog signalling dependent manner during in vitro cardiomyogenesis

Background The Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway regulates cardiomyogenesis in vivo and in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell model. To further assess the transcriptional role of HH signalling during cardiomyogenesis in stem cells, we studied the effects of overexpressing GLI2, a primary transducer of the HH signalling pathway, in...

Efficient TALEN-mediated myostatin gene editing in goats

Background Myostatin (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that might have applications for promoting muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we aimed to test whether targeted MSTN editing, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), is a viable approach to create myostatin-modified goats (Capra hircus). Results We obtained a...

Salmonid fish: model organisms to study cardiovascular morphogenesis in conjoined twins?

Background There is a gap in knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system in fish conjoined twins, and regarding the cardiovascular morphogenesis of conjoined twins in general. We examined the cardiovascular system in a pair of fully developed ventrally conjoined salmonid twins (45.5 g body weight), and the arrangement of the blood vessels during early development in ventrally...

Relating proton pumps with gap junctions: colocalization of ductin, the channel-forming subunit c of V-ATPase, with subunit a and with innexins 2 and 3 during Drosophila oogenesis

Background Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system...

Expression and knockdown of zebrafish folliculin suggests requirement for embryonic brain morphogenesis

Background Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. BHD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Folliculin (FLCN). Little is known about what FLCN does in a healthy...

Light-sheet microscopy for everyone? Experience of building an OpenSPIM to study flatworm development

Background Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM a type of light-sheet microscopy) involves focusing a thin sheet of laser light through a specimen at right angles to the objective lens. As only the thin section of the specimen at the focal plane of the lens is illuminated, out of focus light is naturally absent and toxicity due to light (phototoxicity) is greatly reduced...

MR microscopy of the human fetal upper extremity – a proof-of-principle study

Background Current knowledge of the human fetal and embryonic development relies on early descriptive studies of humans and from experimental studies of laboratory animals and embryos. Taking the upper extremity as an example, this study explores the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) for the assessment of the development of the fetal upper extremity and discusses...

Adhesive organ regeneration in Macrostomum lignano

Background Flatworms possess pluripotent stem cells that can give rise to all cell types, which allows them to restore lost body parts after injury or amputation. This makes flatworms excellent model systems for studying regeneration. In this study, we present the adhesive organs of a marine flatworm as a simple model system for organ regeneration. Macrostomum lignano has...