Acta Neuropathologica

http://link.springer.com/journal/401

List of Papers (Total 471)

Tumour compartment transcriptomics demonstrates the activation of inflammatory and odontogenic programmes in human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and identifies the MAPK/ERK pathway as a novel therapeutic target

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) are clinically challenging tumours, the majority of which have activating mutations in CTNNB1. They are histologically complex, showing cystic and solid components, the latter comprised of different morphological cell types (e.g. β-catenin-accumulating cluster cells and palisading epithelium), surrounded by a florid glial reaction with ...

Functional morphology of the blood–brain barrier in health and disease

The adult quiescent blood–brain barrier (BBB), a structure organised by endothelial cells through interactions with pericytes, astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the neurovascular unit, is highly regulated but fragile at the same time. In the past decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding not only the molecular pathways involved in BBB development, but also ...

The DNA methylome of DDR genes and benefit from RT or TMZ in IDH mutant low-grade glioma treated in EORTC 22033

The optimal treatment for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) WHO grade II remains controversial. Overall survival ranges from 2 to over 15 years depending on molecular and clinical factors. Hence, risk-adjusted treatments are required for optimizing outcome and quality of life. We aim at identifying mechanisms and associated molecular markers predictive for benefit from ...

BACE1 inhibition more effectively suppresses initiation than progression of β-amyloid pathology

BACE1 is the rate-limiting protease in the production of synaptotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) species and hence one of the prime drug targets for potential therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, so far pharmacological BACE1 inhibition failed to rescue the cognitive decline in mild-to-moderate AD patients, which indicates that treatment at the symptomatic stage might be too late. In ...

Paragangliomas arise through an autonomous vasculo-angio-neurogenic program inhibited by imatinib

Tumours can be viewed as aberrant tissues or organs sustained by tumorigenic stem-like cells that engage into dysregulated histo/organogenetic processes. Paragangliomas, prototypical organoid tumours constituted by dysmorphic variants of the vascular and neural tissues found in normal paraganglia, provide a model to test this hypothesis. To understand the origin of paragangliomas, ...

A zebrafish model for C9orf72 ALS reveals RNA toxicity as a pathogenic mechanism

The exact mechanism underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) associated with the GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 is still unclear. Two gain-of-function mechanisms are possible: repeat RNA toxicity and dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) toxicity. We here dissected both possibilities using a zebrafish model for ALS. Expression of two DPRs, ...

Synapse loss in the prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

In addition to motor neurone degeneration, up to 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients present with cognitive decline. Understanding the neurobiological changes underlying these cognitive deficits is critical, as cognitively impaired patients exhibit a shorter survival time from symptom onset. Given the pathogenic role of synapse loss in other neurodegenerative ...

Neuronal complex I deficiency occurs throughout the Parkinson’s disease brain, but is not associated with neurodegeneration or mitochondrial DNA damage

Mitochondrial complex I deficiency occurs in the substantia nigra of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. It is generally believed that this phenomenon is caused by accumulating mitochondrial DNA damage in neurons and that it contributes to the process of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that if these theories are correct, complex I deficiency should extend beyond the substantia ...

Spread of aggregates after olfactory bulb injection of α-synuclein fibrils is associated with early neuronal loss and is reduced long term

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine neurons and by intraneuronal aggregates, primarily composed of misfolded α-synuclein. The α-synuclein aggregates in Parkinson’s patients are suggested to first appear in the olfactory bulb and enteric nerves and then propagate, following a stereotypic pattern, via neural pathways to numerous regions ...

Changes in chromatin state reveal ARNT2 at a node of a tumorigenic transcription factor signature driving glioblastoma cell aggressiveness

Although a growing body of evidence indicates that phenotypic plasticity exhibited by glioblastoma cells plays a central role in tumor development and post-therapy recurrence, the master drivers of their aggressiveness remain elusive. Here we mapped the changes in active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications accompanying the repression of glioblastoma stem-like ...

Uncoupling N-acetylaspartate from brain pathology: implications for Canavan disease gene therapy

N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is the second most abundant organic metabolite in the brain, but its physiological significance remains enigmatic. Toxic NAA accumulation appears to be the key factor for neurological decline in Canavan disease—a fatal neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency in the NAA-degrading enzyme aspartoacylase. To date clinical outcome of gene replacement therapy ...

Comprehensive molecular characterisation of epilepsy-associated glioneuronal tumours

Glioneuronal tumours are an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Subtypes of tumour are often poorly discriminated by histological features and may be difficult to diagnose due to a lack of robust diagnostic tools. This is illustrated by marked variability in the reported frequencies across different epilepsy surgical series. To address this, we used DNA methylation ...

Distinct molecular profile of diffuse cerebellar gliomas

Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor-driving alterations are often different among gliomas that originated from different brain regions and have underscored the importance of analyzing molecular characteristics of gliomas stratified by brain region. Therefore, to elucidate molecular characteristics of diffuse cerebellar gliomas (DCGs), 27 adult, mostly glioblastoma cases ...

Alpha-synuclein oligomers: a new hope

Alpha-synuclein is a protein implicated in Parkinson’s disease and thought to be one of the main pathological drivers in the disease, although it remains unclear how this protein elicits its neurotoxic effects. Recent findings indicate that the assembly of toxic oligomeric species of alpha-synuclein may be one of the key processes for the pathology and spread of the disease. The ...

A knock-in/knock-out mouse model of HSPB8-associated distal hereditary motor neuropathy and myopathy reveals toxic gain-of-function of mutant Hspb8

Mutations in the small heat shock protein B8 gene (HSPB8/HSP22) have been associated with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, and recently distal myopathy. It is so far not clear how mutant HSPB8 induces the neuronal and muscular phenotypes and if a common pathogenesis lies behind these diseases. Growing evidence points towards a role of HSPB8 in ...

Persistent microglial activation and synaptic loss with behavioral abnormalities in mouse offspring exposed to CASPR2-antibodies in utero

Gestational transfer of maternal antibodies against fetal neuronal proteins may be relevant to some neurodevelopmental disorders, but until recently there were no proteins identified. We recently reported a fivefold increase in CASPR2-antibodies in mid-gestation sera from mothers of children with intellectual and motor disabilities. Here, we exposed mice in utero to purified IgG ...

Microglial-mediated PDGF-CC activation increases cerebrovascular permeability during ischemic stroke

Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can significantly improve neurological outcomes; however, thrombolytic therapy is associated with an increased risk of intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previously, we demonstrated that during stroke tPA acting on the parenchymal side of the neurovascular unit (NVU) can increase blood–brain ...

Leukodystrophies: a proposed classification system based on pathological changes and pathogenetic mechanisms

Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders characterized by the selective involvement of the central nervous system white matter. Onset may be at any age, from prenatal life to senescence. Many leukodystrophies are degenerative in nature, but some only impair white matter function. The clinical course is mostly progressive, but may also be static or even improving with ...

Same-day genomic and epigenomic diagnosis of brain tumors using real-time nanopore sequencing

Molecular classification of cancer has entered clinical routine to inform diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decisions. At the same time, new tumor entities have been identified that cannot be defined histologically. For central nervous system tumors, the current World Health Organization classification explicitly demands molecular testing, e.g., for 1p/19q-codeletion or IDH ...

Parietal white matter lesions in Alzheimer’s disease are associated with cortical neurodegenerative pathology, but not with small vessel disease

Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) encompass axonal loss and demyelination, and the pathogenesis is assumed to be small vessel disease (SVD)-related ischemia. However, WML may also result from the activation of Wallerian degeneration as a consequence of cortical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, i.e. hyperphosphorylated tau (HPτ) and amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition. WML seen in AD ...