Crime Science

http://link.springer.com/journal/40163

List of Papers (Total 88)

An information theory approach to hypothesis testing in criminological research

Background This research demonstrates how the Akaike information criterion (AIC) can be an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing in selecting best fitting models. It presents an example to illustrate how AIC can be used in this way. Methods Using data from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, we test models of place-based predictor variables on street robbery and commercial robbery. ...

Crime topic modeling

The classification of crime into discrete categories entails a massive loss of information. Crimes emerge out of a complex mix of behaviors and situations, yet most of these details cannot be captured by singular crime type labels. This information loss impacts our ability to not only understand the causes of crime, but also how to develop optimal crime prevention strategies. We ...

Personal security alarms for the prevention of assaults against healthcare staff

Background Personal security alarms have been used to try to reduce violence against healthcare staff, some of whose members face relatively high risks of assault. This systematic review focused on the effect of alarms in reducing the incidence and/or severity of assaults. Methods Electronic databases, including Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); PubMed; ...

Ravenous wolves revisited: a systematic review of offending concentration

Background Numerous studies have established that crime is highly concentrated among a small group of offenders. These findings have guided the development of various crime prevention strategies. The underlying theme of these strategies is that by focusing on the few offenders who are responsible for most of the crime, we can prevent the greatest amount of crime with the fewest ...

How concentrated is crime among victims? A systematic review from 1977 to 2014

Background Considerable research shows that crime is concentrated among a few victims. However, no one has systematically compared these studies to determine the level of concentration and its variation across studies. To address this void in our knowledge of repeat victimization, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence that crime is concentrated among ...

Compared to what? Estimating the relative concentration of crime at places using systematic and other reviews

Background That crime is concentrated at a few places is well established by over 44 studies. This is true whether one examines addresses or street segments. Additionally, crime is concentrated among offenders and victims. Many physical, biological, and social phenomena are concentrated as well. This raises a question: is crime more or less concentrated at places than other ...

A systematic review of tagging as a method to reduce theft in retail environments

Background Retailers routinely use security tags to reduce theft. Presently, however, there has been no attempt to systematically review the literature on security tags. Guided by the acronym EMMIE, this paper set out to (1) examine the evidence that tags are effective at reducing theft, (2) identify the key mechanisms through which tags are expected to reduce theft and the ...

How concentrated is crime at places? A systematic review from 1970 to 2015

Background Despite the increasing awareness and interests about the importance of crime concentration at places, scholars have not comprehensively synthesized the body of evidence related to this thesis. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence that crime is concentrated among places. Methods We identified 44 studies that empirically examined crime ...

Wildlife crime: a conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique

Wildlife crime, including poaching and wildlife trafficking, threaten the existence of particular species. To date, research on wildlife crime has been primarily conducted by those with backgrounds in the biological sciences, however crime scientists, have much to offer in examining wildlife crimes. With this in mind, we aim to highlight general principals of crime science found ...

Multivariate analysis of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction data for the detection of illicit drugs in border control

A system using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction has been tested to detect the presence of illicit drugs concealed within parcels typical of those which are imported into the UK via postal and courier services. The system was used to record diffraction data from calibration samples of diamorphine (heroin) and common cutting agents and a partial least squares regression model was ...

Drug supply networks: a systematic review of the organizational structure of illicit drug trade

This study presents a systematic review of research using social network analysis to document the structure of organized crime groups involved in drug trafficking. Our first objective is to determine whether the balance of evidence supports the argument that organized crime groups are loosely structured. Second, we aim to assess the relative importance of targeting individuals high ...

Domestic burglary drop and the security hypothesis

This study examines the role of household security devices in producing the domestic burglary falls in England and Wales. It extends the study of the security hypothesis as an explanation for the ‘crime drop’. Crime Survey for England and Wales data are analysed from 1992 to 2011/12 via a series of data signatures indicating the nature of, and change in, the relationship between ...

Disappeared persons and homicide in El Salvador

During 2012–2013, the homicide rate in El Salvador came down from 69.9 to 42.2 per 100,000 population following a government brokered truce between the leaders of the two major gangs, Mara Salvatrucha and Barrio 18. But despite the apparent successes of the truce, it was speculated that the drop in murders could have been due to the killers simply hid the bodies of their victims. ...

A metric of the difference between perception of security and victimisation rates

A person’s perception of the level of security at a specific location depends on many factors, including past experiences in that location, the actual crime suffered by the population and more. Thus, when the individual perception that a location is insecure becomes the general rule is when the perception of security becomes an attribute of the region rather than the fears of some ...

The global crime drop and changes in the distribution of victimisation

Over three decades crime counts in England and Wales, as throughout the Western world, have fallen. Less attention has been paid to the distribution of crime across households, though this is crucial in determining optimal distribution of limited policing resources in pursuing the aim of distributive justice. The writers have previously demonstrated that in England and Wales the ...

Book review: Crime and Everyday Life by Marcus Felson and Mary Eckert, 5th edition

Marcus Felson Crime and Everyday Life. Texas State University and Mary Eckert—MA Eckert Consulting, LLC, 2016. SAGE Publications, Inc., 240 pages

Using Bayesian networks to guide the assessment of new evidence in an appeal case

When new forensic evidence becomes available after a conviction there is no systematic framework to help lawyers to determine whether it raises sufficient questions about the verdict in order to launch an appeal. This paper presents such a framework driven by a recent case, in which a defendant was convicted primarily on the basis of audio evidence, but where subsequent analysis of ...

In defence of administrative criminology

Background This paper is based on an address given as joint winner with Ronald V. Clarke of the 2015 Stockholm Prize in Criminology. This was awarded for some early studies we worked on together in the UK Home Office which were seen as important in re-focusing the task of preventing crime towards simply reducing opportunities for it. This approach became known as situational crime ...

Rapid assessment of “eve teasing” (sexual harassment) of young women during the commute to college In India

Many countries have taken action in recent times to address harassment in the work place and violence in the home, but little attention has been paid to sexual harassment in public places, specifically during women’s journey to work and school. In developing countries, many more women are seeking education and employment than previously, which has increased the opportunity for ...

An assessment of households’ perceptions of private security companies and crime in urban Ghana

Amidst the growing incidence of urban crime in Ghana is the proliferation of private security companies (PSCs). As of December 2014, Ghana’s Ministry of Interior, responsible for the registration and regulation of PSCs, reported that there were as many as 176 licensed companies in ‘good standing’ (that is, companies which have renewed their operating licenses) in the country. In ...

Equity, justice and the crime drop: the case of burglary in England and Wales

Burglary in England and Wales fell by 67 % between 1993 and 2008/09. This study examines whether this fall was equitable across different population segments (with respect to their socio-economic characteristics) and area types. In particular, it estimates the extent of burglary falls and any changes in the victimisation divide across socio-economic (population) groups taking into ...

An exploratory study of public reports to investigate patterns and themes of requests for sexual images of minors online

There is a growing body of research on sexually motivated online communication with minors that has been variously described as luring, grooming and solicitation. Evidence from US studies would suggest an increase in aggressive sexual solicitations, with adolescent girls being more likely to be targeted. Existing research has involved adolescent as well as offender populations, and ...