Genes & Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/12263

List of Papers (Total 269)

Genetic polymorphism in selenoprotein P modifies the response to selenium-rich foods on blood levels of selenium and selenoprotein P in a randomized dietary intervention study in Danes

BackgroundSelenium is an essential trace element and is suggested to play a role in the etiology of a number of chronic diseases. Genetic variation in genes encoding selenoproteins, such as selenoprotein P and the glutathione peroxidases, may affect selenium status and, thus, individual susceptibility to some chronic diseases. In the present study, we aimed to (1) investigate the...

Dietary and genetic risk scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes

BackgroundBoth lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We...

ONS: an ontology for a standardized description of interventions and observational studies in nutrition

BackgroundThe multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research is one of its main strengths. At the same time, however, it presents a major obstacle to integrate data analysis, especially for the terminological and semantic interpretations that specific research fields or communities are used to. To date, a proper ontology to structure and formalize the concepts used for the...

Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev): how to conduct an extensive literature search for biomarker of food intake discovery

Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs...

Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD affect the outcome of clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric variables in people with obesity under a dietary intervention

BackgroundGenetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary...

Proposed guidelines to evaluate scientific validity and evidence for genotype-based dietary advice

Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic...

A scheme for a flexible classification of dietary and health biomarkers

Biomarkers are an efficient means to examine intakes or exposures and their biological effects and to assess system susceptibility. Aided by novel profiling technologies, the biomarker research field is undergoing rapid development and new putative biomarkers are continuously emerging in the scientific literature. However, the existing concepts for classification of biomarkers in...

Fructose ingestion impairs expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle’s adaptive response to aerobic exercise

Background The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic...

Ranges of phenotypic flexibility in healthy subjects

Background A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. A systemic review defined an optimal nutritional challenge test, the “PhenFlex test” (PFT). Recently, it has been shown that the PFT enables the quantification of all relevant metabolic processes involved in maintaining or regaining homeostasis of metabolic health. Furthermore, it was...

Synbiotic effects of β-glucans from cauliflower mushroom and Lactobacillus fermentum on metabolic changes and gut microbiome in estrogen-deficient rats

Background We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods OVX rats were fed with high-fat...

A prospective study of dietary and supplemental zinc intake and risk of type 2 diabetes depending on genetic variation in SLC30A8

Background The solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) encodes a zinc transporter in the pancreatic beta cells and the major C-allele of a missense variant (rs13266634; C/T; R325W) in SLC30A8 is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that the association between zinc intake and T2D may be modified by the SLC30A8 genotype. Results We...

Gene-nutrient interactions and susceptibility to human obesity

A large number of genome-wide association studies, transferability studies, and candidate gene studies performed in diverse populations around the world have identified gene variants that are associated with common human obesity. The mounting evidence suggests that these obesity gene variants interact with multiple environmental factors and increase susceptibility to this complex...

Impact of supplementation with a food-derived microbial community on obesity-associated inflammation and gut microbiota composition

Background Obesity is a complex pathology associated with dysbiosis, metabolic alterations, and low-grade chronic inflammation promoted by immune cells, infiltrating and populating the adipose tissue. Probiotic supplementation was suggested to be capable of counteracting obesity-associated immune and microbial alterations, based on its proven immunomodulatory activity and...

Amino acid supplements and metabolic health: a potential interplay between intestinal microbiota and systems control

Dietary supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to promote healthspan. EAAs regulate, in fact, glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintain immune homeostasis. Basic science and epidemiological results indicate that dietary macronutrient composition affects healthspan through multiple and integrated...

Ancestors’ dietary patterns and environments could drive positive selection in genes involved in micronutrient metabolism—the case of cofactor transporters

Background During evolution, humans colonized different ecological niches and adopted a variety of subsistence strategies that gave rise to diverse selective pressures acting across the genome. Environmentally induced selection of vitamin, mineral, or other cofactor transporters could influence micronutrient-requiring molecular reactions and contribute to inter-individual...

Does dietary fat affect inflammatory markers in overweight and obese individuals?—a review of randomized controlled trials from 2010 to 2016

BackgroundObesity, a major cause of death and disability, is increasing worldwide. Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state which is suggested to play a critical role in the development of obesity-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In fact, in the hours following consumption of a meal, a transient increase in inflammatory...

Dietary and health biomarkers—time for an update

In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health. The implementation of biomarkers in nutritional research will be important to...

Role of microRNAs in obesity and obesity-related diseases

In recent years, the link between regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases has been the object of intensive research. miRNAs have emerged as key mediators of metabolic processes, playing crucial roles in maintaining/altering physiological processes, including energy balance and metabolic homeostasis. Altered miRNAs expression has been reported in association with obesity, both...