Genes & Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/12263

List of Papers (Total 269)

Short-term dietary methionine supplementation affects one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the mouse gut and leads to altered microbiome profiles, barrier function, gene expression and histomorphology

BackgroundMethionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the...

Multi-parameter comparison of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects: the PhenFlex challenge

Background A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. Recently, it was shown that metabolic challenge tests in combination with the new generation biomarkers allow the simultaneous quantification of major metabolic health processes. Currently, applied challenge tests are largely non-standardized. A systematic review defined an optimal...

Lactase persistence in Tunisia as a result of admixture with other Mediterranean populations

Background The ability to digest lactose after weaning, namely, lactase persistence (LP), is encoded by polymorphisms in the MCM6 gene and varies widely in frequency among different human populations. Although, evolution of LP-related genetic variants was investigated in many groups of Sub-Saharan African, Middle Eastern, and European ancestry, only few studies have focused on...

Formidable challenges to the notion of biologically important roles for dietary small RNAs in ingesting mammals

The notion of uptake of active diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in recipient organisms could have significant implications for our understanding of oral therapeutics and nutrition, for the safe use of RNA interference (RNAi) in agricultural biotechnology, and for ecological relationships. Yet, the transfer and subsequent regulation of gene activity by diet-derived sRNAs in...

Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants

Background Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potential food safety issues if harmful miRNAs are absorbed and bioactive. For...

Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?

In ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer’s gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy...

Navigating dietary small RNAs

When a novel nutritional concept comes along, scientists become enthusiastic and start new explorations. In 2012, the field was enthralled with a study suggesting plant-based nucleic acid “information” acts as a bioactive to regulate animal metabolism.

Milk exosomes: beyond dietary microRNAs

Extracellular vesicles deliver a variety of cargos to recipient cells, including the delivery of cargos in dietary vesicles from bovine milk to non-bovine species. The rate of discovery in this important line of research is slowed by a controversy whether the delivery and bioactivity of a single class of vesicle cargos, microRNAs, are real or not. This opinion paper argues that...

Examining for an association between candidate gene polymorphisms in the metabolic syndrome components on excess weight and adiposity measures in youth: a cross-sectional study

BackgroundA polymorphism in a gene may exert its effects on multiple phenotypes. The aim of this study is to explore the association of 10 metabolic syndrome candidate genes with excess weight and adiposity and evaluate the effect of perinatal and socioeconomic factors on these associations.MethodsThe anthropometry, socioeconomic and perinatal conditions and 10 polymorphisms were...

Obesity and microbiota: an example of an intricate relationship

It is widely accepted that metabolic disorders, such as obesity, are closely linked to lifestyle and diet. Recently, the central role played by the intestinal microbiota in human metabolism and in progression of metabolic disorders has become evident. In this context, animal studies and human trials have demonstrated that alterations of the intestinal microbiota towards enhanced...

Folate deficiency as predisposing factor for childhood leukaemia: a review of the literature

Background Folic acid and its derivates, known as folates, are chemoprotective micronutrients of great interest because of their essential role in the maintenance of health and genomic integrity. The supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy has long been known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the foetus. Folate metabolism can be altered by many factors...

Enrichment of in vivo transcription data from dietary intervention studies with in vitro data provides improved insight into gene regulation mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa

Background Gene expression profiles of intestinal mucosa of chickens and pigs fed over long-term periods (days/weeks) with a diet rich in rye and a diet supplemented with zinc, respectively, or of chickens after a one-day amoxicillin treatment of chickens, were recorded recently. Such dietary interventions are frequently used to modulate animal performance or therapeutically for...

Transcriptomic responses of the liver and adipose tissues to altered carbohydrate-fat ratio in diet: an isoenergetic study in young rats

Background To elucidate the effects of altered dietary carbohydrate and fat balance on liver and adipose tissue transcriptomes, 3-week-old rats were fed three kinds of diets: low-, moderate-, and high-fat diets (L, M, and H) containing a different ratio of carbohydrate-fat (C-F) (65:15, 60:20, and 35:45 in energy percent, respectively). Methods The rats consumed the diets for 9...

Brain xanthophyll content and exploratory gene expression analysis: subspecies differences in rhesus macaque

Background The dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in primate retina and brain, and emerging evidence indicates neural lutein content may be beneficial for cognition. Neural xanthophyll content in primates varies greatly among individuals, and genetic factors are likely to be significant contributors. Subspecies of rhesus macaques originating from different...

Gene expression is differentially regulated in skeletal muscle and circulating immune cells in response to an acute bout of high-load strength exercise

Background High-intensity exercise induces many metabolic responses. In is unknown whether the response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) reflects the response in skeletal muscle and whether mRNA expression after exercise can be modulated by nutritional intake. The aims were to (i) investigate the effect of dairy proteins on acute responses to exercise in skeletal...

Effect of different concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids on stimulated THP-1 macrophages

BackgroundInflammation plays a central role in chronic diseases occurring in the contemporary society. The health benefits of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported. However, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We explored dose and time effects of EPA, DHA, and a mixture of EPA + DHA on...

Food components and contaminants as (anti)androgenic molecules

Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual...

The impact of micronutrient status on health: correlation network analysis to understand the role of micronutrients in metabolic-inflammatory processes regulating homeostasis and phenotypic flexibility

BackgroundVitamins and carotenoids are key micronutrients facilitating the maintenance of health, as evidenced by the increased risk of disease with low intake. Optimal phenotypic flexibility, i.e., the ability to respond to a physiological challenge, is an essential indicator of health status. Therefore, health can be measured by applying a challenge test and monitoring the...

A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

Background The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions regulated by increased consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the...

Propelling the paradigm shift from reductionism to systems nutrition

The complex physiology of living organisms represents a challenge for mechanistic understanding of the action of dietary bioactives in the human body and of their possible role in health and disease. Animal, cell, and microbial models have been extensively used to address questions that could not be pursued experimentally in humans, posing an additional level of complexity in...

Effect of high carbohydrate diet on elongase and desaturase activity and accompanying gene expression in rat’s liver

Background Hepatic fatty acids (FAs) are modified through different metabolic pathways including elongation and desaturation. These processes are catalyzed by elongases and desaturases, respectively. Glucose, by transcription factors, regulates these processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of high carbohydrate diet (68%) on the expression of elongase (Elovl...

Protein-restricted diet during pregnancy after insemination alters behavioral phenotypes of the progeny

Background Epidemiological studies suggest that hyponutrition during the fetal period increases the risk of mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism-spectrum disorder, which has been experimentally supported using animal models. However, previous experimental hyponutrition or protein-restricted (PR) diets affected stages other than the fetal...

Tocotrienols induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

Background We have previously reported that γ- and δ-tocotrienols (γ- and δ-T3) induce gene expression and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). This effect is mediated, at least in part, by a specific binding and activation of the estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). Transcriptomic data obtained within our previous studies, interrogated by different bioinformatic...

Time-course microarray analysis for identifying candidate genes involved in obesity-associated pathological changes in the mouse colon

BackgroundObesity is known to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. However, mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of obesity-induced colorectal cancer are not completely understood. The purposes of this study were to identify differentially expressed genes in the colon of mice with diet-induced obesity and to select candidate genes as early markers of obesity-associated...