Genes & Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/12263

List of Papers (Total 269)

Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men

We aimed to explore whether vegetable consumption according to guidelines has beneficial health effects determined with classical biomarkers and nutrigenomics technologies. Fifteen lean (age 36 ± 7 years; BMI 23.4 ± 1.7 kg m−2) and 17 obese (age 40 ± 6 years; BMI 30.3 ± 2.4 kg m−2) men consumed 50- or 200-g vegetables for 4 weeks in a randomized, crossover trial. Afterward, all...

Obesity polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies interact with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and modify the genetic association with adiposity phenotypes in Yup’ik people

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-obesity effects that may modulate risk of obesity, in part, through interactions with genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI); however, the extent to which these variants influence adiposity through interactions with n-3 PUFAs remains...

A pathway approach to investigate the function and regulation of SREBPs

The essential function of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in cellular lipid metabolism and homeostasis has been recognized for a long time, and the basic biological pathway involving SREBPs has been well described; however, a rapidly growing number of studies reveal the complex regulation of these SREBP transcription factors at multiple levels. This regulation...

Do we know enough? A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition

This article discusses the prospects and limitations of the scientific basis for offering personalized nutrition advice based upon individual genetic information. Two divergent scientific positions are presented, with an ethical comment. The crucial question is whether the current knowledge base is sufficiently strong for taking an ethically responsible decision to offer...

Hepatic and plasma sex differences in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are associated with differences in expression of elongase 6, but not stearoyl-CoA desaturase in Sprague–Dawley rats

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have been viewed as either beneficial or neutral with respect to health; however, recent evidence suggests that MUFA may be associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in MUFA composition have been reported in both rats and humans, but the basis for this sexual dimorphism is unknown. In the current study, enzymes involved...

Dose-dependent effects of a genistein-enriched diet in the heart of ovariectomized mice

The isoflavone genistein is used as a pharmacological compound and as a food supplement. The duration and the level of exposure of humans to genistein are considerable. However, the magnitude of genistein-supplemented dietary interventions necessary to induce any changes in the heart has not been studied so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effects...

Hydrogen sulphide-related thiol metabolism and nutrigenetics in relation to hypertension in an elderly population

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule that regulates blood flow and pressure. It is synthesised from cysteine via cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. We examined whether thiol precursors of H2S, transsulphuration pathway gene variants (CBS-844ins68 and CTH-G1364T) and key B-vitamin cofactors might be critical determinants of hypertension in an...

Complex interaction between serum folate levels and genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway genes: biomarkers of prostate cancer aggressiveness

Little is known about the role of folate and polymorphisms associated with folate metabolism on prostate cancer risk in populations of African origin. We examined the relationship between serum folate and prostate cancer and whether any association was modified by genetic polymorphisms for folate metabolism. The study was case–control in design and consisted of 218 men 40–80...

Timed high-fat diet in the evening affects the hepatic circadian clock and PPARα-mediated lipogenic gene expressions in mice

A long-term high-fat diet may result in a fatty liver. However, whether or not high-fat diets affect the hepatic circadian clock is controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of timed high-fat diet on the hepatic circadian clock and clock-controlled peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-mediated lipogenic gene expressions. Mice were...

The application of GMOs in agriculture and in food production for a better nutrition: two different scientific points of view

This commentary is a face-to-face debate between two almost opposite positions regarding the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and food production. Seven questions on the potential benefits of the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and on the potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health were posed to two scientists: one who is...

A randomized trial of genetic information for personalized nutrition

Personal genetic information has become increasingly accessible to the public as a result of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests; however, concerns have been raised over their value and potential risks. We compared the effects of providing genotype-based dietary advice with general recommendations on behavioral outcomes using a randomized controlled study. Participants were...

Genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired insulin secretion but does not modify insulin resistance or secretion in response to an intervention to lower dietary saturated fat

Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effect of genetic predisposition to T2D on insulin sensitivity and secretion using detailed phenotyping in overweight individuals with no diagnosis of T2D. Furthermore, we investigated whether this genetic predisposition modifies the responses in beta-cell...

Foodomics: a new comprehensive approach to food and nutrition

In the past 20 years, the scientific community has faced a great development in different fields due to the development of high-throughput, omics technologies. Starting from the four major types of omics measurements (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), a variety of omics subdisciplines (epigenomics, lipidomics, interactomics, metallomics, diseasomics, etc...

Advances in genomics for flatfish aquaculture

Fish aquaculture is considered to be one of the most sustainable sources of protein for humans. Many different species are cultured worldwide, but among them, marine flatfishes comprise a group of teleosts of high commercial interest because of their highly prized white flesh. However, the aquaculture of these fishes is seriously hampered by the scarce knowledge on their biology...

Association of the C825T polymorphism in the GNB3 gene with obesity and metabolic phenotypes in a Taiwanese population

The relationship between obesity and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs5443 (C825T), in the guanine nucleotide binding protein beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) gene is currently inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to reassess whether the GNB3 rs5443 SNP could influence obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits in a Taiwanese population. A total of 983 Taiwanese subjects...

Evaluation of multiple variate selection methods from a biological perspective: a nutrigenomics case study

Genomics-based technologies produce large amounts of data. To interpret the results and identify the most important variates related to phenotypes of interest, various multivariate regression and variate selection methods are used. Although inspected for statistical performance, the relevance of multivariate models in interpreting biological data sets often remains elusive. We...

Partial rescue of Rett syndrome by ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) oil

Evidence of enhanced oxidative stress (O.S.) and lipid peroxidation has been reported in patients with Rett syndrome (RTT), a relatively rare neurodevelopmental disorder progressing in 4-stages, and mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. No effective therapy for preventing or arresting the neurologic regression in the disease in its...

Transcriptomic profiles of skeletal muscle tissue following an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant obese subjects

Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Muscle is mainly responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose clearance from the bloodstream. Thus, regulation of gene expression in muscle tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. The objective was to investigate gene expression and metabolic pathways...

The role of nuclear receptors in the kidney in obesity and metabolic syndrome

Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcriptional regulators of several key aspects of renal physiology and pathophysiology. As such, nuclear receptors control a large variety of metabolic processes, including kidney lipid metabolism, drug clearance, inflammation, fibrosis, cell differentiation, and oxidative stress. Derangement of nuclear receptor regulation, that is...

Differential effects of selenium and knock-down of glutathione peroxidases on TNFα and flagellin inflammatory responses in gut epithelial cells

Selenium (Se) is essential for human health. Despite evidence that Se intake affects inflammatory responses, the mechanisms by which Se and the selenoproteins modulate inflammatory signalling, especially in the gut, are not yet defined. The aim of this work was to assess effects of altered Se supply and knock-down of individual selenoproteins on NF-κB activation in gut epithelial...

Gene expression profiling reveals differential effects of sodium selenite, selenomethionine, and yeast-derived selenium in the mouse

The essential trace mineral selenium is an important determinant of oxidative stress susceptibility, with several studies showing an inverse relationship between selenium intake and cancer. Because different chemical forms of selenium have been reported to have varying bioactivity, there is a need for nutrigenomic studies that can comprehensively assess whether there are...