Clinical Pharmacokinetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/40262

List of Papers (Total 201)

Pharmacokinetics of ADS-5102 (Amantadine) Extended Release Capsules Administered Once Daily at Bedtime for the Treatment of Dyskinesia

BackgroundPreclinical and clinical studies suggest amantadine immediate-release (IR) may reduce dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease (PD), although higher doses are associated with increased CNS adverse events (AEs). ADS-5102 is an extended release amantadine capsule formulation, designed for once-daily dosing at bedtime (qhs) to provide high concentrations upon waking and...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dalcetrapib

The cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor dalcetrapib has been under evaluation for its potential to prevent cardiovascular (CV) events for almost two decades. The current clinical development program, representing new advances in precision medicine and focused on a genetically defined population with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), is supported by a large body of...

Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Alirocumab in Healthy Volunteers or Hypercholesterolemic Subjects Using a Michaelis–Menten Approximation of a Target-Mediated Drug Disposition Model—Support for a Biologics License Application Submission: Part I

BackgroundAlirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody, inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) to significantly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; pharmacokinetics (PK) are governed by non-linear, target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD).ObjectivesWe aimed to develop and qualify a population PK (PopPK) model to characterize the PK profile of...

Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Alirocumab in Healthy Volunteers or Hypercholesterolemic Subjects Using an Indirect Response Model to Predict Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering: Support for a Biologics License Application Submission: Part II

BackgroundAlirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.ObjectiveThis analysis aimed to develop and qualify a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for alirocumab based on pooled data obtained from 13 phase I/II/III clinical trials.MethodsFrom a...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Dose Recommendations for Posaconazole in Infants and Children

ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in immunocompromised children, evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on posaconazole exposure and perform simulations to recommend optimal starting doses.MethodsPosaconazole plasma concentrations from paediatric patients undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring...

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Once-Weekly Somapacitan in Children and Adults: Supporting Dosing Rationales with a Model-Based Analysis of Three Phase I Trials

BackgroundSomapacitan, a long-acting growth hormone (GH) derivative, has been well-tolerated in children with GH deficiency (GHD) and adults (healthy and adult GHD), in phase I, single- and multiple-dose trials, respectively, and has pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties supporting a once-weekly dosing regimen.ObjectiveIn the absence of a multiple-dose phase I trial in...

The Influence of Normalization Weight in Population Pharmacokinetic Covariate Models

In covariate (sub)models of population pharmacokinetic models, most covariates are normalized to the median value; however, for body weight, normalization to 70 kg or 1 kg is often applied. In this article, we illustrate the impact of normalization weight on the precision of population clearance (CLpop) parameter estimates. The influence of normalization weight (70, 1 kg or...

Treosulfan Pharmacokinetics and its Variability in Pediatric and Adult Patients Undergoing Conditioning Prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Current State of the Art, In-Depth Analysis, and Perspectives

Treosulfan is a prodrug that undergoes a highly pH- and temperature-dependent nonenzymatic conversion to the monoepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol 4-methanesulfonate [S,S-EBDM]} and diepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane [S,S-DEB]}. Currently, treosulfan is tested in clinical trials as an alternative to busulfan in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell...

Individualization of Irinotecan Treatment: A Review of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenetics

Since its clinical introduction in 1998, the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan has been widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancer. Irinotecan therapy is characterized by several dose-limiting toxicities and large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Irinotecan has a highly complex metabolism, including hydrolyzation...

Target-Controlled Continuous Infusion for Antibiotic Dosing: Proof-of-Principle in an In-silico Vancomycin Trial in Intensive Care Unit Patients

ObjectivesIn this in-silico study, we investigate the clinical utility of target-controlled infusion for antibiotic dosing in an intensive care unit setting using vancomycin as a model compound. We compared target-controlled infusion and adaptive target-controlled infusion, which combines target-controlled infusion with data from therapeutic drug monitoring, with conventional...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Evolocumab, a PCSK9 Inhibitor

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by decreasing expression of the LDL receptor on hepatic cells. Evolocumab is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 that binds specifically to human PCSK9 to reduce LDL-C. Evolocumab exhibits nonlinear kinetics as a result of binding to PCSK9. Elimination is...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Telavancin Compared with the Other Glycopeptides

Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant...

Characterization of the Pharmacokinetics of Vilaprisan: Bioavailability, Excretion, Biotransformation, and Drug–Drug Interaction Potential

Background and objectives In-vitro data suggest that clearance of vilaprisan is mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (oxidation) and aldoketoreductases (reduction). To fully understand the elimination and biotransformation pathways of vilaprisan, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, and to quantify the impact of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of...

A Pharmacometric Approach to Substitute for a Conventional Dose-Finding Study in Rare Diseases: Example of Phase III Dose Selection for Emicizumab in Hemophilia A

Background Emicizumab (ACE910) is a bispecific antibody mimicking the cofactor function of activated coagulation factor VIII. In phase I–I/II studies, emicizumab reduced the bleeding frequency in patients with severe hemophilia A, regardless of the presence of factor VIII inhibitors, at once-weekly subcutaneous doses of 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg. Methods Using the phase I–I/II study...

Vortioxetine: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions

Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant with multimodal activity currently approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Vortioxetine is orally administered once daily at 5- to 20-mg doses. The pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine are linear and dose proportional, with a mean terminal half-life of approximately 66 h and steady-state plasma concentrations generally achieved...

Correction to: Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl and Its Derivatives in Children: A Comprehensive Review

Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in...

Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profile of Riociguat

Oral riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator that targets the nitric oxide (NO)–sGC–cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway with a dual mode of action: directly by stimulating sGC, and indirectly by increasing the sensitivity of sGC to NO. It is rapidly absorbed, displays almost complete bioavailability (94.3%), and can be taken with or without food and as...

Population Pharmacokinetics of Upadacitinib in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Analyses of Phase I and II Clinical Trials

Background and Objectives Upadacitinib is a janus kinase (JAK) 1 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. This work characterized upadacitinib population pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and RA patients and the effects of covariates on upadacitinib exposure. Methods Upadacitinib plasma concentrations (n = 6399...