Clinical Pharmacokinetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/40262

List of Papers (Total 179)

Characterization of the Pharmacokinetics of Vilaprisan: Bioavailability, Excretion, Biotransformation, and Drug–Drug Interaction Potential

Background and objectives In-vitro data suggest that clearance of vilaprisan is mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (oxidation) and aldoketoreductases (reduction). To fully understand the elimination and biotransformation pathways of vilaprisan, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, and to quantify the impact of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of ...

A Pharmacometric Approach to Substitute for a Conventional Dose-Finding Study in Rare Diseases: Example of Phase III Dose Selection for Emicizumab in Hemophilia A

Background Emicizumab (ACE910) is a bispecific antibody mimicking the cofactor function of activated coagulation factor VIII. In phase I–I/II studies, emicizumab reduced the bleeding frequency in patients with severe hemophilia A, regardless of the presence of factor VIII inhibitors, at once-weekly subcutaneous doses of 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg. Methods Using the phase I–I/II study ...

Correction to: Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl and Its Derivatives in Children: A Comprehensive Review

Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in ...

Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profile of Riociguat

Oral riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator that targets the nitric oxide (NO)–sGC–cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway with a dual mode of action: directly by stimulating sGC, and indirectly by increasing the sensitivity of sGC to NO. It is rapidly absorbed, displays almost complete bioavailability (94.3%), and can be taken with or without food and as crushed ...

Population Pharmacokinetics of Upadacitinib in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Analyses of Phase I and II Clinical Trials

Background and Objectives Upadacitinib is a janus kinase (JAK) 1 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. This work characterized upadacitinib population pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and RA patients and the effects of covariates on upadacitinib exposure. Methods Upadacitinib plasma concentrations (n = 6399) ...

Influence of Disease and Patient Characteristics on Daratumumab Exposure and Clinical Outcomes in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Objective The aim of this study was to understand the influence of disease and patient characteristics on exposure to daratumumab, an immunoglobulin Gκ (IgGκ) monoclonal antibody, and clinical outcomes in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Patients and Methods Baseline myeloma type, albumin levels, renal/hepatic function, age, sex, race, weight, Eastern Cooperative ...

Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Belimumab Administered Subcutaneously in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Background Intravenous belimumab 10 mg/kg every 4 weeks is indicated in patients with active, autoantibody-positive systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard systemic lupus erythematosus care. Subcutaneous 200-mg weekly administration, which may prove more convenient for patients and improve adherence, is currently under investigation. Objective The objective of this study ...

Extrapolation of a Brivaracetam Exposure–Response Model from Adults to Children with Focal Seizures

Introduction Prediction of brivaracetam effects in children was obtained by scaling an existing adult pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for brivaracetam to children, using an existing population PK model for brivaracetam in children. The scaling was supported by estimating the change from adults to children in the concentration–effect relationship parameters for ...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Panitumumab in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

Despite progress in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in the last 15 years, it is still a condition with a relatively low 5-year survival rate. Panitumumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is able to prolong survival in patients with mCRC. Panitumumab is used in different lines of therapy in ...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Micafungin

Micafungin is a selective inhibitor of the synthesis of fungal 1,3-β-d-glucan, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. It is available as a powder for infusion only and is registered for the treatment of invasive and esophageal candidiasis in addition to prophylaxis of Candida infections in both adults and children. Average exposure after a single intravenous 100 mg dose in ...

Higher Midazolam Clearance in Obese Adolescents Compared with Morbidly Obese Adults

Background The clearance of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrates is reported to be reduced with lower age, inflammation and obesity. As it is unknown what the overall influence is of these factors in the case of obese adolescents vs. morbidly obese adults, we studied covariates influencing the clearance of the CYP3A substrate midazolam in a combined analysis of data from obese ...

Evidence-Based Design of Fixed-Dose Combinations: Principles and Application to Pediatric Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy

Background and Objectives Fixed-dose combination formulations where several drugs are included in one tablet are important for the implementation of many long-term multidrug therapies. The selection of optimal dose ratios and tablet content of a fixed-dose combination and the design of individualized dosing regimens is a complex task, requiring multiple simultaneous considerations. ...

Pharmacokinetic Optimization of Everolimus Dosing in Oncology: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus is used in the treatment of breast cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, and renal cancer. The approved 10 mg once-daily dose is associated with considerable adverse effects and it has been suggested that these are associated with the maximum concentration (C max) of everolimus. Twice-daily dosing might be an ...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Systemically Administered Antileishmanial Drugs

This review describes the pharmacokinetic properties of the systemically administered antileishmanial drugs pentavalent antimony, paromomycin, pentamidine, miltefosine and amphotericin B (AMB), including their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and potential drug–drug interactions. This overview provides an understanding of their clinical pharmacokinetics, which ...

Prediction of Fetal Darunavir Exposure by Integrating Human Ex-Vivo Placental Transfer and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

Background Fetal antiretroviral exposure is usually derived from the cord-to-maternal concentration ratio. This static parameter does not provide information on the pharmacokinetics in utero, limiting the assessment of a fetal exposure–effect relationship. Objective The aim of this study was to incorporate placental transfer into a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic ...

A Population Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict the Individual Starting Dose of Tacrolimus Following Pediatric Renal Transplantation

Background Multiple clinical, demographic, and genetic factors affect the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in children, yet in daily practice, a uniform body-weight based starting dose is used. It can take weeks to reach the target tacrolimus pre-dose concentration. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus immediately after kidney ...

Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Alemtuzumab and Its Use in Kidney Transplantation

Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52 and causes depletion of T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. Alemtuzumab is registered for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is also used in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Alemtuzumab is used off-label in kidney transplantation as induction and anti-rejection therapy. The objective of this review ...

Explaining Ethnic Variability of Transporter Substrate Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Asian and Caucasian Subjects with Allele Frequencies of OATP1B1 and BCRP: A Mechanistic Modeling Analysis

Background Ethnic variability in the pharmacokinetics of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 substrates has been observed, but its basis is unclear. A previous study hypothesizes that, without applying an intrinsic ethnic variability in transporter activity, allele frequencies of transporters cannot explain observed ethnic variability in pharmacokinetics. However, ...

Clinical Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Cebranopadol, a Novel First-in-Class Analgesic

Background and Objectives Cebranopadol is a novel first-in-class analgesic acting as a nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide and opioid peptide receptor agonist with central analgesic activity. It is currently in clinical development for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. This trial focuses on the clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of cebranopadol after oral single- and ...

Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Olaratumab, an Anti-PDGFRα Human Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients with Advanced and/or Metastatic Cancer

Background and Objectives Olaratumab is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody that binds to platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα). In a randomized phase II study, olaratumab plus doxorubicin met its predefined primary endpoint for progression-free survival and achieved a highly significant improvement in overall survival versus doxorubicin alone in patients with ...

A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Abemaciclib in a Phase I Clinical Trial in Cancer Patients

Background and Objectives Abemaciclib, a dual inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, has demonstrated clinical activity in a number of different cancer types. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of abemaciclib in cancer patients using population pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling, and to evaluate target engagement at clinically relevant dose ...

A Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Immunogenicity of Vedolizumab

Vedolizumab is a humanized anti-α4β7 integrin monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks trafficking of memory T cells to inflamed gut tissue by inhibiting the α4β7-mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) interaction. Approved for treating patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD), vedolizumab is administered as a 300 ...

An Open-Label Crossover Study of the Pharmacokinetics of the 60-mg Edoxaban Tablet Crushed and Administered Either by a Nasogastric Tube or in Apple Puree in Healthy Adults

Background Edoxaban is an orally active, direct factor Xa inhibitor indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Objectives This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the edoxaban 60-mg tablet crushed and administered via a nasogastric tube in a water ...