Applied Petrochemical Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/13203

List of Papers (Total 195)

Catalytic cracking of naphtha: The effect of Fe and Cr impregnated ZSM-5 on olefin selectivity

This study focuses on the modification of ZSM-5 in order to enhance the catalytic cracking of refinery naphtha to produce light olefins. ZSM-5 was metal modified using different loadings (0.5–5 wt%) of Fe and Cr via the impregnation method. The metal modified ZSM-5 samples are compared and the effect of metal loading on the physicochemical properties and catalytic performance is...

Acetalization of glycerol with acetone over various metal-modified SBA-15 catalysts

Several catalysts containing metals such as Al, Zr, Ti and Nb were incorporated in SBA-15 with Si/M ratio = 20 using the hydrothermal process. These catalysts were evaluated for their reactivity during acid-catalyzed condensation of glycerol with acetone to yield a mixture of branched compounds, namely (2,2-dimethyl- [1,3] dioxane-4-yl)-methanol (solketal) and 2,2-dimethyl- [1,3...

Autoxidation of aromatics

Autoxidation is a conversion pathway that has the potential to add value to multinuclear aromatic-rich coal liquids, heavy oils and bitumens, which are typically considered low-value liquids. In particular, autoxidation of these heavy materials could lead to products that may have petrochemical values, e.g., lubricity improvers and emulsifiers. Proper assessment of an oxidative...

Response surface models for synthetic jet fuel properties

Jet fuel is a mixture of different hydrocarbon groups, and the mass contribution of each of these groups toward the overall chemical composition of the fuel dictates the bulk physical properties of the fuel after completion of the refining and blending processes. The fluidity properties of jet fuel mixtures at low temperatures are critical in understanding and mitigating the...

Reaction kinetics of ethane partial oxidation to acetic acid

The partial oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid on supported MoVNbPd/TiO2 (P25 of Degussa) has been investigated. Pd was added in a nano-metallic form. The catalyst composition was also different from similar studied catalysts. This results in a better selectivity towards acetic acid formation. The reaction was carried out in a tubular reactor at temperature range 225...

An experimental investigation on effective parameters of batch impregnation systems: a case study on Pt–Sn/Al2O3 catalyst

The adsorption of hexachloroplatinic acid on Sn-impregnated γ-alumina support in the presence of the competitive chloride ion, as a step in preparation of multi-metallic Pt-based catalyst (such as Pt–Sn/Al2O3), was studied. The transient adsorption data were obtained by studying the impregnation of Sn/Al2O3 with H2PtCl6 in an external recycle packed-bed impregnation system. The...

Synthesis of SAPO-34 catalysts via sonochemically prepared method and its catalytic performance in methanol conversion to light olefins

Methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction was investigated over sonochemically (SAPO-34-U40, SAPO-34-U70, SAPO-34-U100) and hydrothermally (SAPO-34-HT) prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic performance of prepared samples was investigated over all samples at 450 °C and over SAPO-34-U40 at 350–450 °C temperature range. The higher yield ~ 97 wt% (31.4 wt% C2=, 49.4 wt% C3= and 16.1 wt...

Comparative investigation on radical polymerization of methyl and ethyl methacrylate under multi-site phase-transfer catalytic conditions

Methyl and ethyl methacrylate was polymerized in heterogeneous system with the help of newly synthesized multi-site phase-transfer catalyst and using water-soluble initiator at 60 ± 1 °C under unstirred inert atmospheric condition. Polymer yield was increased with increasing molar concentrations of monomer, initiator, catalyst and temperature. Polymerization follows first-order...

Synthesis and crystal structure of N,N-dimethylformamide solvate of thiocyanuric acid

Considerable attention has been paid recently to crystal engineering; which involves the design and preparation of new crystalline molecular solids with desired properties [1–4]. Crystalline materials with specific properties find applications in petrochemical industry for separation and purification. Moreover, crystal engineering provides products designed for manufacturing...

Technical review on flexible processing middle distillate for achieving maximum profit in China

Currently, refining business is experiencing a transformation from refining to chemical business, or integration of refining and chemical business due to the slow economic growth, and decreased demand of clean fuels, particularly diesel product. Diesel products are over-supplied based on the consumption data in China. Refineries are pursuing technologies that could reduce diesel...

Grafting dual polar monomers onto hydroperoxidized polypropylene with the assistant of supercritical carbon dioxide

A hydroperoxidized polypropylene (HPP) was obtained by oxidizing PP porous particle in solid phase, followed by impregnating dual polar monomers of pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) and styrene (St) into the HPP with the aid of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Then, HPP was used as polymerization initiators and PETA/St were grafted onto microporous PP backbone in water...

Effect of Fe impregnation sequence on ethanol synthesis from syngas over Mn and Fe promoted Rh/γ-Al2O3

Fe promoted Rh–Mn/Al2O3 catalysts with different Fe impregnation sequences were used for ethanol formation from syngas. The effect of Fe impregnation sequence on the structure and performance of the catalysts was investigated by means of N2 adsorption, CO adsorption, H2-TPR, H2-TPD, CO-TPD, XPS and DRIFTS. The results showed that the RhMnFe/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by co...

Enterprise-wide optimization in a petrochemical plant: a MILP approach to energy efficiency improvement

Public policy, dollar rate, market prices, contracts values and equipment efficiency influence the costs of the energy sources at an ethylene plant. The aim of this research is to identify energy efficiency opportunities at the energy management resources in a petrochemical industry. It was proved that using MILP makes it possible to achieve energy efficiency gains. MILP proved...

Kinetic modeling and study of H-ZSM-5 coated silicon carbide ceramic foam in toluene methylation to produce xylene

This work deals with the toluene alkylation reaction with methanol catalyzed by commercial H-ZSM-5 coated over SiC foam. The main product is xylene which is a well-known building block of many petrochemicals. The foam has been purchased and H-ZSM-5 was coated on it by dip-coating method. The coated foam was used as a catalyst block to study the reaction of toluene with methanol...

Density, viscosity, surface tension, and excess properties of DSO and gas condensate mixtures

Disulfide oil (DSO) mostly burned or stored is known as a low-grade byproduct in gas refining industries. This material is highly perilous to environment. A common way to reduce the environmental impact of DSO is blending in a specific ratio with gas condensate stream in gas refinery. This would improve DSO quality and consequently strengthen its unique application. In this work...

Simulation and optimization of different pressure thermally coupled distillation for separating a close-boiling mixture of n-butanol and iso-butanol

Substantial quantities of energy are required in conventional distillation columns applied in high-purity separation of close-boiling mixtures. To achieve energy saving of distillation, a novel different pressure thermally coupled distillation (DPTCD) was proposed for separating the close-boiling mixture of n-butanol and iso-butanol. Both this intensified energy integration...

Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with carbon dioxide over Cr2O3/SBA-15 catalysts: the influence of sulfate modification of the support

Unmodified and sulfate-modified SBA-15-supported Cr2O3 catalysts were prepared by impregnation method. The physico-chemical properties of the supports and catalysts were determined by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), laser-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–Vis diffuse...

Improved performance of hierarchical porous Mo/H-IM-5 catalyst in methane non-oxidative aromatization

Two novel hierarchical porous IM-5-S and IM-5-M materials were synthesized using mesoporous silica SBA-15 and MCM-48 as the silica sources, and for comparison conventional IM-5-C zeolite was also synthesized with the same synthesis composition. IM-5-S and IM-5-M samples exhibited larger crystal sizes and different textural properties than the conventional IM-5-C zeolite. Moreover...

Ultrasonic condition boosts up the rate of phase transfer catalyzed polymerization of acrylonitrile in two-phase system

An ultrasound condition associated with phase-transfer catalyst (PTC) has great diverse applications in synthesis of various organic and polymeric materials because of its fast reaction and high yield in short period of time. Phase transfer catalyst (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as PTC) extracts the reactive radical anion from aqueous phase and transfer to organic phase whilst...

Energy efficiency improvement in an ethylene plant propylene refrigeration cycle (C3R)

A typical refrigeration cycle in an ethylene plant utilizes propene as fluid. When C3R is still in the warm zone, there is some process heat exchangers that leave it sub-cooled. This creates the opportunity for operational improvement in these systems which will result in less parasite steam formation on cycle expansion zone. The objective is analyze this energy efficiency...

A research into the thermodynamics of methanol to hydrocarbon (MTH): conflictions between simulated product distribution and experimental results

Thermodynamic calculations and analysis were carried out for a rational understanding of the results from selected laboratory MTH reactions. Simulations without solid carbons (coke), CO, CO2 and light alkanes target on the yield of olefin and aromatic products, which has been found better referenced to the real experimental observations that occur in time-on-stream (TOS). The...

Carbonylation of glycerol with urea to glycerol carbonate over supported Zn catalysts

Glycerol carbonylation with urea is a very feasible option to produce glycerol carbonate with a net result of CO2 fixation through urea synthesis. The prerequisite of an efficient catalyst for this reaction is to possess both acid and basic sites together. Several acidic supports were screened for ZnO catalyst in this work and Zn/MCM-41 was found to exhibit the best activity and...

Dehydrocyclization of n-octane over boron- and barium-doped V-Mg-O catalysts: influence of n-octane/oxygen ratios

Boron- and barium-doped vanadium–magnesium oxide catalysts (BVMgO and BaVMgO) were synthesized by the wet impregnation method and were used for the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-octane at different n-octane/O2 molar ratios. The catalysts were characterized by ICP-OES, in situ XRD, 51V MAS NMR, SEM, EDX and TGA-DSC. The catalytic tests were carried out in a continuous flow fixed...

Catalytic upgrading of refinery cracked products by trans-hydrogenation: a review

The production of high premium fuel is an issue of priority to every refinery. The trans-hydrogenation process is devised to convert two low valued refinery cracked products to premium products; the conversion processes involve the combination of dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reaction as a single step process. The paper reviews the recent literature on the use of catalysts to...