19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century

http://www.19.bbk.ac.uk/
19 is an open-access, scholarly, refereed web journal dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary study in the long nineteenth century. Based at Birkbeck, University of London, 19 extends the activities of the Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies by making the high-quality, original scholarship presented at its regular conferences, symposia and other events available to an international audience. 19 publishes two themed issues annually, each consisting of a collection of peer-reviewed articles showcasing the broadest range of new research in nineteenth-century studies, as well as special forums advancing critical debate in the field.

List of Papers (Total 233)

Introduction: Curating Feeling

This introduction discusses the process of ‘curating feeling’ in response to the ‘Fallen Woman’ exhibition curated by Lynda Nead at the Foundling Museum in 2015. It uses this idea to reflect on both the historical specificity of Victorian emotion and the ways in which emotive objects have the potential to collapse time, nurturing a transhistorical sense of emotional community. The ...

The Trouble with Feeling Now: Thomas Woolner, Robert Browning, and the Touching Case of Constance and Arthur

Using a marble statue by the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor Thomas Woolner as its focus, this article discusses historical and present-day concerns about the act of feeling for aesthetic objects. The statue, entitled Constance and Arthur, a portrait of two deaf children, was first shown at the chaotic and commercially driven 1862 International Exhibition. Woolner asked Robert Browning to ...

Art, Music, and the Emotions in the Aesthetic Movement

This article explores two phenomenologically distinct aspects of cultural production, art and music. It shows how they overlap, exist in counterpoint or in harmony, and coalesce around specific themes and preoccupations to represent, articulate, produce, or, indeed, repress feelings. Focusing on the work of William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, James McNeill Whistler, ...

‘They cannot choose but look’: Ruskin and Emotional Architecture

To mark the death of John Ruskin in 1900, the architect Robert Kerr wrote an article for the Royal Institute of British Architects Journal titled ‘Ruskin and Emotional Architecture’. Kerr, one of the founding members of the Architectural Association, credited Ruskin with creating an awareness of the emotional intensity of the architectural experience. Ruskin was, according to Kerr, ...

Diana or Christ?: Seeing and Feeling Doubt in Late-Victorian Visual Culture

A young woman, a Christian from the third century ce, has a serious decision to make. She stands before a vast crowd at Ephesus, in what is now Turkey. Should she show her allegiance to Diana, the Roman goddess of the hunt, and live, or choose Christ, and be thrown to the lions? Victorian gallery-goers were entranced by this scene, an 1881 painting by the Anglo-Catholic Edwin Long, ...

The Awakening Conscience: Christian Sentiment, Salvation, and Spectatorship in Mid-Victorian Britain

From the 1830s into the mid-1850s, key Victorian art and texts depicted passionate Christian feeling through the trope of ‘awakening’. Visual and written representations dramatized awakening Christians in fervent states of salvation, conversion, and devotion. Feeling had always been central to Christian belief but in the long nineteenth century faith was newly wedded to sensation. ...

Feeling, Affect, Melancholy, Loss: Millais’s Autumn Leaves and the Siege of Sebastopol

John Millais’s Autumn Leaves (1856) has long been recognized as a painting that sets out to produce certain feelings in the spectator — feelings that are usually identified as very abstract ones of melancholy and loss. As such, it tends to be read either alongside contemporary poetry that seeks to evoke a similar response, or as a forerunner of the aesthetic turn of the 1860s. I ...

Richard Dadd’s Passions and the Treatment of Insanity

Richard Dadd, an academically trained young artist who exhibited at the Royal Academy, suddenly descended into madness in 1843 and murdered his father whom he believed to be an impostor. Dadd spent forty-two years in institutions for the criminally insane. During that time he was encouraged by his doctors to paint and continued to produce art work which included a large series, ...

Vernon Lee’s Composition of ‘The Virgin of the Seven Daggers’: Historic Emotion and the Aesthetic Life

This article examines Vernon Lee’s personal impressions of the people, landscapes, architecture, and religious art she encountered while travelling in Tangier and Southern Spain in the winter of 1888 and 1889 as recorded in her Commonplace Book iv. In doing so, it contextualizes the composition of Lee’s only supernatural tale set in Spain, ‘The Virgin of the Seven Daggers’, written ...

On Tempera and Temperament: Women, Art, and Feeling at the Fin de Siècle

In her recent book Women Writing Art History in the Nineteenth Century, Hilary Fraser observes that Nathaniel Hawthorne’s account of Hilda’s womanly sensibility in The Marble Faun subsumes her visual agency into the vision of the master painter. Hilda is widely regarded as being modelled on his wife, the painter and illustrator Sophia Peabody Hawthorne. Hawthorne’s reference to a ...

‘For the cake was so pretty’: Tactile Interventions in Taste; or, Having One’s Cake and Eating It in The Mill on the Floss

The feeling of hunger operates under a premise of sensory absence, creating a yearning for taste and for touch. Yet it becomes even more pronounced when a degree of touch is permitted, but taste is denied. In such moments, satiation is brought painfully near, intensifying the emptiness of the stomach. This understanding of physical hunger can be extended to aesthetic desire, ...

Review of ‘Sculpture Victorious: Art in an Age of Invention, 1837–1901’ at the Yale Center for British Art, 11 September to 30 November 2014

An academic review of the exhibition ‘Sculpture Victorious: Art in an Age of Invention, 1837–1901’ at the Yale Center for British Art, assessing the impact of the exhibition for the future of studies into Victorian sculpture.

Alfred Drury: The Artist as Curator

This article presents a series of reflections on the experience of curating the exhibition ‘Alfred Drury and the New Sculpture’ in 2013. In particular, it charts the evolution of the design of the exhibition, notably its central tableau based on a photograph of the sculptor Alfred Drury’s studio in 1900. This photograph records a display of Drury’s works for visiting Australian ...

Exhibiting Victorian Sculpture in Context: Display, Narrative, and Conversation in ‘John Tweed: Empire Sculptor, Rodin’s Friend’

This article considers the practice and processes employed in the completion of an exhibition of Victorian sculpture. Focusing on the author’s recent co-curatorship of the 2013 exhibition ‘John Tweed: Empire Sculptor, Rodin’s Friend’, the article looks at three different areas of production: the curatorial rational, the exhibition content, and the exhibition narrative. The ...

Photographs of Sculpture: Greek Slave’s ‘complex polyphony’, 1847–77

This article explores some of the representations, iterations, and appearances of Hiram Powers’s Greek Slave in London in the decades after its first exhibition in 1845, years in which a variety of new ‘engines of the fine arts’ were fuelling a widening market for art objects of all kinds, and popular culture could turn statues into celebrities appearing everywhere — exhibitions, ...

Robert Browning, ‘SCULPTOR & poet’

This article explores Robert Browning’s experiments in the art of sculpture during the period 1859 to 1863, and considers the ways in which his sculptural practice influenced his subsequent poetic practice. The article argues that the publication of Dramatis Personae in 1864 marks a turning point in Browning’s confidence in articulating his poetic theories, and traces the ...

The Relief of Lucknow: Henry Hugh Armstead’s Outram Shield (c. 1858–62)

This article examines, in unprecedented close detail and for the first time, in an imperial studies context, a significant piece of Victorian silver testimonial sculpture. Challenging the previous separation of the fields of silver sculpture studies, Victorian sculpture studies, and studies of the Indian Mutiny and its aftermath, the article suggests that Armstead’s shield has much ...

Marmoreal Sisterhoods: Classical Statuary in Nineteenth-Century Women’s Writing

This article examines the deployment of statuary in nineteenth-century women’s poetry. It considers the importance of classical sculpture in the work of the Romantic writer Felicia Hemans before proceeding to examine its significance in poems by later Irish and American poets including Frances Sargent Osgood, Emily Henrietta Hickey, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Eliza C. Hall, Henrietta ...

‘A token of their love’: Queen Victoria Memorials in New Zealand

This article provides an overview of the four metropolitan sculptural memorials to Queen Victoria in late-colonial New Zealand, which all immediately precede the colony’s Dominion status (1907). In chronological order, they were erected in Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Dunedin. While the Auckland memorial was unveiled within the Queen’s lifetime, her death in 1901 ...

‘A series of surfaces’: The New Sculpture and Cinema

This article examines New Sculpture in the context of the emergence of cinema, arguing that chronophotography had a major impact on the temporalization of sculpture in late nineteenth-century Britain. Departing from the demonstrable impact of motion studies on Rodin’s sculpture, the article compares Sir Frederic Leighton’s Athlete Wrestling with a Python (1877) to Rodin’s work on ...

Nathaniel Hitch and the Making of Church Sculpture

Housed at the Henry Moore Institute in Leeds is the archive of the little-known sculptor Nathaniel Hitch (1845–1938). This comprises hundreds of studio photographs, which collectively and individually provide significant insight into a hitherto neglected branch of Victorian sculpture: church sculpture. Changing attitudes to religion from the 1840s onwards created conditions that ...

Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of 19, the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

Review of ‘Sculpture Victorious: Art in an Age of Invention, 1837–1901’ at Tate Britain, 25 February to 25 May 2015

This article reviews the exhibition ‘Sculpture Victorious’, which ran at Tate Britain from 25 February to 25 May 2015. It describes the exhibition, considers the curators’ approach in the wider context of nineteenth-century studies, and assesses its implications for the field.

Reading Victorian Sculpture

This introduction reflects on reading sculpture in Victorian culture, and in Victorian studies. How did the Victorians read sculpture? How should we read it today? What might a sculpture connote in different contexts: the home, the street, the gallery, the colony? How broadly should we define what we describe as ‘Victorian sculpture’, in light of nineteenth-century industrial and ...

Citizen Science: Sally Shuttleworth and her Team Interviewed by Carolyn Burdett

In this podcast interview Carolyn Burdett joins Sally Shuttleworth, Gowan Dawson, Geoffrey Belknap, and Alison Moulds to discuss their project ‘Constructing Scientific Communities: Citizen Science in the 19th and 21st Centuries’. From Charles Darwin, nineteenth-century scientific periodicals, scientific communities, and amateur scientists to their twenty-first century virtual ...