Marine Biodiversity

http://link.springer.com/journal/12526

List of Papers (Total 65)

Mitochondrial genome and polymorphic microsatellite markers from the abyssal sponge Plenaster craigi Lim & Wiklund, 2017: tools for understanding the impact of deep-sea mining

The abyssal demosponge Plenaster craigi is endemic to the Clarion - Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the NE Pacific, a region with abundant seafloor polymetallic nodules and of potential interest for mining. Plenaster craigi encrusts on these nodules and is an abundant component of the ecosystem. To assess the impact of mining operations, it is crucial to understand the genetics of this ...

First records of Geodia demosponges from the New England seamounts, an opportunity to test the use of DNA mini-barcodes on museum specimens

We report the first records of the sponge genus Geodia (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida, Geodiidae) from the New England Seamounts and Muir Seamount, at lower bathyal depths. Nine specimens collected between 2000 and 2005 belong to two boreal species (Geodia macandrewii and Geodia barretti) and a temperate species (Geodia megastrella). These records extend the distributions of these ...

Postglacial expansion of the Arctic keystone copepod Calanus glacialis

Calanus glacialis, a major contributor to zooplankton biomass in the Arctic shelf seas, is a key link between primary production and higher trophic levels that may be sensitive to climate warming. The aim of this study was to explore genetic variation in contemporary populations of this species to infer possible changes during the Quaternary period, and to assess its population ...

Comparative marine biodiversity and depth zonation in the Southern Ocean: evidence from a new large polychaete dataset from Scotia and Amundsen seas

Based on a dataset of 16,991 and 307 morphospecies of polychaete worms collected from 58 epibenthic sledge deployments across the Scotia and Amundsen Seas, we show that the structures of their shelf, deep-shelf and slope communities are composed of distinct polychaete assemblages spanning regions with “high”, “intermediate”, and “low” biodiversity. Depth has been identified as the ...

Marine long-term biodiversity assessment suggests loss of rare species in the Skagerrak and Kattegat region

Studies of cumulative and long-term effects of human activities in the ocean are essential for developing realistic conservation targets. Here, we report the results of a recent national marine biodiversity inventory along the Swedish West coast between 2004 and 2009. The expedition revisited many historical localities that have been sampled with the same methods in the early ...

Wave-swept coralliths of Saba Bank, Dutch Caribbean

During a recent reef coral survey at the submarine Saba Bank (Eastern Caribbean), an uncommon and diverse assemblage of unattached scleractinian corals (coralliths) was encountered, which has not been reported from the Atlantic before. Four different types of these free-living (unattached) corals were distinguished. They were observed on a relatively flat seafloor (15–20 m deep) ...

Isolation and characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci for studies of the big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea

The big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea, occurs on coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific region from East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, wherein it is of great ecological and socio-economic importance. However, many components of its intraspecific biodiversity, such as population structure, are unresolved due to a lack of informative genetic markers. To address this issue, which ...

Seasonal changes in morpho-functional aspects of two Anemonia sulcata (Pennant, 1777) wild populations

Marine benthic organisms can be used as indicators of the quality of environmental status and as monitoring tools to detect natural or anthropogenic perturbations. In temperate waters, metabolic and biochemical responses may be governed by physiological changes driven by seasonal factors. Gathering baseline information on the mechanisms underlying seasonal acclimation patterns is ...

Life history, patchy distribution, and patchy taxonomy in a shallow-water invertebrate (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: Lepidopleurida)

Things without names are difficult to rationalise, and so species that go without names are difficult to conserve or protect. This is a case study in resolving conflicts in historical taxonomy and ‘real’ species (identifiable and evolutionarily relevant groupings) using an approach including population genetics, natural history, and pragmatism. We report the observation that ...

Black corals (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone

The antipatharian fauna of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone is discussed. Five species of black corals from three genera were identified in collections from this area, including one new species. A list is provided of the 15 species of antipatharians that have been collected at depths greater than 3000 m, and a figure is included that shows the bathymetric distribution of all ...

New Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Gulf of Guinea

Four new species of deep-sea Tanaidacea taken from the Gulf of Guinea as part of the Ghanaian marine environmental monitoring programme in 2012 are described. One of the species, which was classified to the family Anarthruridae, differed substantially from the other members of the family, and was accommodated to the newly erected genus – Olokun n. gen. Each of the three other ...

Redescription of Nanacalathis atlantica Zezina, 1991 (Brachiopoda: Chlidonophoridae) from the North Atlantic

The chlidonophorid brachiopod species Nanacalathis atlantica Zezina, 1991 has been identified in material from the north tropical Mid-Atlantic Ridge, between 16°56’ – 16°51’N at the depth range 3227–3474 m, collected during the 37th cruise of the RV Professor Logachev in February-March 2015. This rich new material allows us to redescribe and properly illustrate this poorly known, ...

First record of the genus Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Sphaerocladina) from the Indian Ocean with the description of two new species: biogeographic and evolutionary significance

Two new species of the genus Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Demospongiae, Vetulinidae, Sphaerocladina) were found off the coast of Western Australia (Indian Ocean). This genus is characterized by acrepid polyaxial desmas (sphaeroclones) equipped with arborescent branched outgrowths with spine-like processes and isometric styles as microscleres. Vetulina indica sp. nov. is an irregular, ...

Infestation of shore crab gills by a free-living mussel species

Parasitic and commensal species can impact the structure and function of ecological communities and are typically highly specialized to overcome host defences. Here, we report multiple instances of a normally free-living species, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758, inhabiting the branchial chamber of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from widely ...

Abundance and morphology of Paleodictyon nodosum, observed at the Clarion-Clipperton Zone

Paleodictyon is an important trace fossil characterised by a regular hexagonal structure and typical of ancient deep-ocean habitats as far back as the Ordovician. It is represented in modern deep-sea settings by Paleodictyon nodosum, known from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the South Atlantic, and off eastern Australia. Here we report the occurrence of P. nodosum in the Clarion ...

Extraordinary numbers of giant squid, Architeuthis dux, encountered in Japanese coastal waters of the Sea of Japan from January 2014 to March 2015

In total, 57 giant squid, Architeuthis dux, were found between January 2014 and March 2015 in Japanese coastal waters in the Sea of Japan. Occurrences were especially high around Sado Island and in Toyama Bay. All of the squid occurred individually, and 28 were found alive. The occurrences were categorized into three groups based on distance from the shore and the depth at which ...

Helioseris cucullata as a host coral at St. Eustatius, Dutch Caribbean

In order to demonstrate how scleractinian corals contribute to marine biodiversity by their host function, information on associated fauna was gathered during a biological survey at St. Eustatius, eastern Caribbean. This knowledge is especially urgent for a host coral such as Helioseris cucullata (Agariciidae), which has undergone strong declines in abundance at various Caribbean ...

New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing ...

Host-dependent variation in density of corallivorous snails (Coralliophila spp.) at Curaçao, southern Caribbean

Snails of the genus Coralliophila (Muricidae: Coralliophilinae) are common in the Caribbean as corallivores that feed on a large range of host species. The present study concerns the distribution of two Coralliophila snails, C. caribaea and C. galea, at 5-m and 10-m depths at Curaçao (southern Caribbean), as associates of the common scleractinians Orbicella annularis and ...