Marine Biodiversity

http://link.springer.com/journal/12526

List of Papers (Total 71)

Diversity and distribution of Arctic Echinoderes species (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida), with the description of one new species and a redescription of E. arlis Higgins, 1966

The kinorhynch fauna from Svalbard and the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard was explored, and a total of nine species of Echinoderes was identified. Two species were new to science, and one, Echinoderes balerioni sp. nov., is described. Echinoderes balerioni sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of short middorsal spines on segments 4, 6, and 8, and in lateroventral positions...

A tip of the iceberg—Pseudotanaidae (Tanaidacea) diversity in the North Atlantic

During two IceAGE expeditions, a large collection of Tanaidacea was gathered from the shelf down to the slope (213−2750 m) in six areas off Iceland—the Irminger Basin, the Iceland Basin, the Norwegian Sea, the Denmark Strait, the Iceland-Faroe Ridge, and the Norwegian Channel. In this collection, members of the family Pseudotanaidae were most numerous component. We examined 40...

Can secondary species maintain a primary role? Consistent inter-regional effects of understory algae on diversity

Loss of habitat is a global threat to biodiversity. Habitat-forming species in particular are shifting their distribution at local and regional scales, changing habitat aspect globally. In temperate intertidal rocky shores, this poleward shift of canopy-forming seaweeds is leading to a shift to mat- or turf-dominated communities. These changes and their consequences are poorly...

Deep-sea video technology tracks a monoplacophoran to the end of its trail (Mollusca, Tryblidia)

Originally known as fossils from the Cambrian to the Devonian, the finding of a living monoplacophoran mollusc in 1952 was one of the great zoological discoveries of the twentieth century. Now, over 35 living species have been documented from deep-sea locations around the world, mainly from samples collected with trawls. Encountering these animals is extremely rare, and in situ...

Characteristics of meiofauna in extreme marine ecosystems: a review

Extreme marine environments cover more than 50% of the Earth’s surface and offer many opportunities for investigating the biological responses and adaptations of organisms to stressful life conditions. Extreme marine environments are sometimes associated with ephemeral and unstable ecosystems, but can host abundant, often endemic and well-adapted meiofaunal species. In this...

Mitochondrial genome and polymorphic microsatellite markers from the abyssal sponge Plenaster craigi Lim & Wiklund, 2017: tools for understanding the impact of deep-sea mining

The abyssal demosponge Plenaster craigi is endemic to the Clarion - Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the NE Pacific, a region with abundant seafloor polymetallic nodules and of potential interest for mining. Plenaster craigi encrusts on these nodules and is an abundant component of the ecosystem. To assess the impact of mining operations, it is crucial to understand the genetics of this...

First records of Geodia demosponges from the New England seamounts, an opportunity to test the use of DNA mini-barcodes on museum specimens

We report the first records of the sponge genus Geodia (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida, Geodiidae) from the New England Seamounts and Muir Seamount, at lower bathyal depths. Nine specimens collected between 2000 and 2005 belong to two boreal species (Geodia macandrewii and Geodia barretti) and a temperate species (Geodia megastrella). These records extend the distributions of...

Postglacial expansion of the Arctic keystone copepod Calanus glacialis

Calanus glacialis, a major contributor to zooplankton biomass in the Arctic shelf seas, is a key link between primary production and higher trophic levels that may be sensitive to climate warming. The aim of this study was to explore genetic variation in contemporary populations of this species to infer possible changes during the Quaternary period, and to assess its population...

Comparative marine biodiversity and depth zonation in the Southern Ocean: evidence from a new large polychaete dataset from Scotia and Amundsen seas

Based on a dataset of 16,991 and 307 morphospecies of polychaete worms collected from 58 epibenthic sledge deployments across the Scotia and Amundsen Seas, we show that the structures of their shelf, deep-shelf and slope communities are composed of distinct polychaete assemblages spanning regions with “high”, “intermediate”, and “low” biodiversity. Depth has been identified as...

Marine long-term biodiversity assessment suggests loss of rare species in the Skagerrak and Kattegat region

Studies of cumulative and long-term effects of human activities in the ocean are essential for developing realistic conservation targets. Here, we report the results of a recent national marine biodiversity inventory along the Swedish West coast between 2004 and 2009. The expedition revisited many historical localities that have been sampled with the same methods in the early...

Wave-swept coralliths of Saba Bank, Dutch Caribbean

During a recent reef coral survey at the submarine Saba Bank (Eastern Caribbean), an uncommon and diverse assemblage of unattached scleractinian corals (coralliths) was encountered, which has not been reported from the Atlantic before. Four different types of these free-living (unattached) corals were distinguished. They were observed on a relatively flat seafloor (15–20 m deep...

Isolation and characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci for studies of the big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea

The big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea, occurs on coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific region from East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, wherein it is of great ecological and socio-economic importance. However, many components of its intraspecific biodiversity, such as population structure, are unresolved due to a lack of informative genetic markers. To address this issue, which...

Life history, patchy distribution, and patchy taxonomy in a shallow-water invertebrate (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: Lepidopleurida)

Things without names are difficult to rationalise, and so species that go without names are difficult to conserve or protect. This is a case study in resolving conflicts in historical taxonomy and ‘real’ species (identifiable and evolutionarily relevant groupings) using an approach including population genetics, natural history, and pragmatism. We report the observation that...

New Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Gulf of Guinea

Four new species of deep-sea Tanaidacea taken from the Gulf of Guinea as part of the Ghanaian marine environmental monitoring programme in 2012 are described. One of the species, which was classified to the family Anarthruridae, differed substantially from the other members of the family, and was accommodated to the newly erected genus – Olokun n. gen. Each of the three other...

Redescription of Nanacalathis atlantica Zezina, 1991 (Brachiopoda: Chlidonophoridae) from the North Atlantic

The chlidonophorid brachiopod species Nanacalathis atlantica Zezina, 1991 has been identified in material from the north tropical Mid-Atlantic Ridge, between 16°56’ – 16°51’N at the depth range 3227–3474 m, collected during the 37th cruise of the RV Professor Logachev in February-March 2015. This rich new material allows us to redescribe and properly illustrate this poorly known...

First record of the genus Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Sphaerocladina) from the Indian Ocean with the description of two new species: biogeographic and evolutionary significance

Two new species of the genus Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Demospongiae, Vetulinidae, Sphaerocladina) were found off the coast of Western Australia (Indian Ocean). This genus is characterized by acrepid polyaxial desmas (sphaeroclones) equipped with arborescent branched outgrowths with spine-like processes and isometric styles as microscleres. Vetulina indica sp. nov. is an irregular...