PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

http://www.plosntds.org/

List of Papers (Total 4,039)

Down-Regulation of TLR and JAK/STAT Pathway Genes Is Associated with Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Gene Expression Analysis in NK Cells from Patients Infected with Leishmania mexicana

An important NK-cell inhibition with reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ and TLR2 expression had previously been identified in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) infected with Leishmania mexicana. In an attempt to pinpoint alterations in the signaling pathways responsible for the NK-cell dysfunction in patients with DCL, this study aimed at identifying differences in the NK-cell ...

Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat ...

Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Virus Clone 13 Is Able to Cross the Ovine Placental Barrier Associated with Foetal Infections, Malformations, and Stillbirths

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that affects domesticated ruminants and occasionally humans. Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid ...

Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates

Background Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods/Principal Findings Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at ...

Assessing Lymphatic Filariasis Data Quality in Endemic Communities in Ghana, Using the Neglected Tropical Diseases Data Quality Assessment Tool for Preventive Chemotherapy

Background The activities of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis have been in operation since the year 2000, with Mass Drug Administration (MDA) undertaken yearly in disease endemic communities. Information collected during MDA–such as population demographics, age, sex, drugs used and remaining, and therapeutic and geographic coverage–can be used to ...

IL18 Gene Variants Influence the Susceptibility to Chagas Disease

Chagas disease is a parasitic disorder caused by the infection with the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to the World Health Organization, more than six million people are currently infected in endemic regions. Genetic factors have been proposed to influence predisposition to infection and development of severe clinical phenotypes like chronic Chagas ...

Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time ...

Cost-Effectiveness of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming in 16 Countries in West Africa

Background Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom (AV) is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa. Methods We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. Specific AVs ...

Marking Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata and Rhodnius nasutus Nymphs with Trace Elements: Element Persistence and Effects of Marking on Insect Mortality

Background Field ecologists often rely on mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments to estimate population dynamics parameters for a given species. In the case of a medically important taxon, i.e., a disease vector, inferences on species survival and dispersal rates are particularly important as they have the potential to provide insights into disease transmission dynamics in ...

Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis

Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis ...

Diagnostic Accuracy of Antigen 5-Based ELISAs for Human Cystic Echinococcosis

Background Clinical diagnosis and follow up of cystic echinococcosis (CE) are based on imaging complemented by serology. Several immunodiagnostic tests are commercially available, but the development of new tools is still needed to overcome the lack of standardization of the target antigen, generally consisting of a crude extract of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst fluid. In a ...

Allicin Induces Calcium and Mitochondrial Dysregulation Causing Necrotic Death in Leishmania

Background Allicin has shown antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo. However the mechanism of action underlying its antiproliferative effect against Leishmania has been virtually unexplored. In this paper, we present the results obtained in L.infantum and a mechanistic basis is proposed. Methodology/Principal Finding Exposure of the parasites to allicin led to high Ca2+ ...

Complexity of Infection and Genetic Diversity in Cambodian Plasmodium vivax

Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite with 2.9 billion people living in endemic areas. Despite intensive malaria control efforts, the proportion of cases attributed to P. vivax is increasing in many countries. Genetic analyses of the parasite population and its dynamics could provide an assessment of the efficacy of control efforts, but, ...

Potential Harm of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusion in Adult Dengue Patients

Background Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of dengue infection, and bleeding is a dreaded complication of dengue fever. Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been used to prevent bleeding in the management of dengue fever, although the evidence for its benefit is lacking. In adult dengue patients with platelet count <20,000/mm3 without bleeding, we aimed to assess if prophylactic ...

Coordinated Changes in Gene Expression Throughout Encystation of Giardia intestinalis

Differentiation into infectious cysts through the process of encystation is crucial for transmission and survival of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Hitherto the majority of studies have focused on the early events, leaving late encystation poorly defined. In order to further study encystation, focusing on the later events, we developed a new encystation ...

Antibody Profiling in Naïve and Semi-immune Individuals Experimentally Challenged with Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

Background Acquisition of malaria immunity in low transmission areas usually occurs after relatively few exposures to the parasite. A recent Plasmodium vivax experimental challenge trial in malaria naïve and semi-immune volunteers from Colombia showed that all naïve individuals developed malaria symptoms, whereas semi-immune subjects were asymptomatic or displayed attenuated ...

Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany

Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study’s objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence ...

Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2–3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children ...

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans (HrCLM) in a Resource-Poor Community in Manaus, Brazil

Background Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions. Methodology/ Principal Findings To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in ...

Maternal Antibody-Mediated Disease Enhancement in Type I Interferon-Deficient Mice Leads to Lethal Disease Associated with Liver Damage

Epidemiological studies have reported that most of the severe dengue cases occur upon a secondary heterologous infection. Furthermore, babies born to dengue immune mothers are at greater risk of developing severe disease upon primary infection with a heterologous or homologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype when maternal antibodies reach sub-neutralizing concentrations. These ...

Sandfly-Borne Phlebovirus Isolations from Turkey: New Insight into the Sandfly fever Sicilian and Sandfly fever Naples Species

Southern Anatolia in Turkey at the border with Syria, where many refugee camps are settled, is endemic for sandfly-borne leishmaniasis. Sandfly-borne phleboviruses are also known to circulate in this region, although their relevance in terms of medical implications is virtually unknown. Therefore, the specific objectives of our study were firstly to identify isolate and ...

Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal

Background In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and ...

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico

An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi ...