Hydrogen content in Kazarian galaxies
Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.
Hydrogen content in Kazarian galaxies
V.S. Tamazian 0
0 Astronomical Observatory \Ramon Maria Aller", University of Santiago de Compostela , P.O. Box 197, Santiago de Compostela , Spain
Several H I related astrophysical parameters well de ned continuous variation of H I parameters in an such as neutral hydrogen total mass and hydrogen mean unbiased sample of galaxies ranging from Sa to the late projected density, indicative total mass as well as usual spirals (Bottinelli et al. 1982). The latter article also proratios MH=L0, MH=Mi and Mi=L0 for 23 galaxies from vides carefully determined useful mean values of H I reKazarian lists are derived. Their variation ranges are lated parameters thus providing an important reference rather wide almost coinciding with those for normal galax- for further comparison with peculiar objects. ies belonging to the same morphological types. Kazarian Obviously, a better knowledge of the integral propergalaxies do not constitute a homogeneous sample by any ties of normal galaxies is mandatory when trying to nd of the commonly used H I related parameters. Comparison out and investigate peculiar objects as well as determine with Markarian and blue Haro galaxies demonstrate that their peculiarity and speci c properties. Kazarian galaxies have quite similar H I properties and contain rather high relative numbers ( 30%) of peculiar objects. Brief comments on the peculiar galaxies Kaz 63, Kaz 65, Kaz 69 and Kaz 211 are given.
UV-excess galaxies | Kazarian galaxies | hydrogen content
The neutral hydrogen content is one of the most
important global parameters of the galaxy, giving rise to a set
of certain characteristics such as total H I mass and its
projected mean density, H I mass to luminosity ratio etc.
serving as a useful tools to investigate the physical
conditions and evolutionary trends in galaxies.
Much work has been done to study H I content in
the normal galaxies covering practically all
morphological types and using large, statistically signi cant
These investigations have shown certain correlations
between morphological type, mass, luminosity and
total H I mass of the galaxy
(Gouguenheim 1969; Roberts
1969; Balkowski 1973; Shostak 1978; Bottinelli et al. 1982;
Roberts & Haynes 1994; Solanes et al. 1996)
In particular, an extensive study of the H I integral
properties of a large number of spiral galaxies has shown
A number of papers dedicated to the H I study in
galaxies from speci c lists such as Markarian
et al. 1973a, 1975)
, several compact (Carozzi et al. 1974),
(Bottinelli et al. 1973b)
and Kiso survey galaxies
(Maehara et al. 1988) based on observations made with
Nancay radiotelescope have been published. They give
valuable criteria for the classi cation and better
understanding of the physical properties of these galaxies as
well as demonstrate their certain peculiarities.
For example, it was found that non-Seyfert Markarian
galaxies show a wide variety of intrinsic physical
properties which are the same as those for normal galaxies
(Bottinelli et al. 1973a)
. In this subclass of Markarian
galaxies, however the objects appear to be overluminous
for their morphological type
(Bottinelli et al. 1975)
In the previous paper
(Tamazian et al. 1997,
hereafter Paper I)
the hydrogen 21 cm line observational data
obtained for the rst time for 39 galaxies taken from
(Kazarian 1979; Kazarian & Kazarian 1982)
have been presented out of which 30 objects have shown
the positive hint of detection. These observations were
made with the Nancay radiotelescope in the course of
several observing runs in 1996.
In the present article several global parameters such
as H I mass, indicative total mass, mixed mean H I
projected density, H I mass-to-luminosity and the other
commonly used ratios derived from the observational data for
23 galaxies are given. Seven galaxies have been discarded
either because of poor and uncertain detection with small
Column 1: Number from Kazarian lists.
Column 2: Hubble morphological type taken from LEDA (? means somewhat uncertain type).
Column 3: Corrected integral B magnitudes extracted from LEDA.
Column 4: Distance in Mpc (based on radial velocities reduced to the Local Group and H = 75 km s−1 Mpc−1).
Column 5: Angular photometric diameter in arcmin taken from LEDA (limiting isophote B = 25m arcsec−2).
Column 6: Linear photometric diameter (kpc).
Column 7: Intrinsic B luminosity (109L ).
Column 8: Mass of neutral hydrogen (109M ).
Column 9: Neutral hydrogen density projected on the optical disk of the galaxy (10−3 g cm−2).
Column 10: Indicative total mass (109M ).
Column 11: Indicative total mass density projected on the optical disk of the galaxy (10−3 g cm−2).
Column 12: Ratio of neutral hydrogen mass to luminosity (M =L ).
Column 13: Ratio of indicative total mass to luminosity (M =L ).
Column 14: Ratio of neutral hydrogen mass to indicative total mass ( 100).
Columnq 15: Quasi volumic neutral hydrogen density.
signal-to-noise ratio or signal possibly confused with other
sources (see comments on the individual objects given in
These data are compared with the corresponding
values both for normal and UV-excess galaxies, in order to
describe the neutral hydrogen content and its behavior in
2. Observational data and derived integral properties
In order to make valuable comparison with the previous
studies, the use of a homogeneous data system is needed.
The increasing number of the available extragalactic
H I data made obvious the necessity to produce a
homogenized system which may be used for statistical and
comparative purposes. A new homogeneous H I data catalogue
has been produced
(Bottinelli et al. 1990)
and its updated
version is now a part of the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic
Database (LEDA), described in detail by
Paturel et al.
It must be noted that all corrections both for
optical and H I data were made following the indications
Paturel et al. (1997)
and Bottinelli et al. (1990,
1995). Consequently, all derived (or taken from LEDA)
integral parameters for Kazarian galaxies correspond to
this widely accepted data system.
For distance estimation the radial velocities reduced
to the Local Group have been used (adopting H = 75 km
A general description of the calculation method and
formulae for all derived parameters may be found in
Bottinelli et al. (1982)
In Table 1 the observational data for 23 galaxies taken
from our previous article and/or LEDA as well as main
derived integral parameters are given.
proportionately lower H I masses. Also, they demonstrate
3. HI properties of Kazarian galaxies a much larger range in H I content and h relative to the
(Roberts & Haynes 1994)
. In this view, the
In Figs. 1a-d the histograms of the following derived pa- location of Kaz 228 and 579 outside the usual limits shown
rameters are shown: luminosity L, maximum of rotational in Fig. 2 must be taken with caution.
velocity Vm, neutral hydrogen mass MH and indicative From the earlier studies it is also known that certain
total mass Mi. It must be noted that Vm values are avail- general relationships do exist between H I related
paramable only for 14 galaxies of our sample (see Table 2 in eters for normal galaxies. We used two well established
Paper I). correlations described by
Figure 2 displays the distribution of the relevant ra- and non-peculiar objects, namely linear diameter (A)
vertios MH=L, MH=Mi, Mi=L as well as h, for our sample sus corrected 21 cm line width ( V0) and H I mass (MH)
galaxies. The arrows in Fig. 2 indicate extremal values versus linear diameter plots, in order to check whether or
of the same parameters for classical galaxies which were not Kazarian galaxies follow them.
taken from the earlier works of
, Shostak These relationships are:
Bottinelli et al. (1982)
and more recent data given
Roberts & Haynes (1994)
It must be noted that with the aim to compare the log A = (1:67 0:39) log V0 − 3:00
homogeneous data sets, throughout this paper we tried to log MH = (1:85 0:40) log A + 7:22:
use for comparison the data based on observations with
Nancay radiotelescope when ever such data were available.
An overview of data given in Table 1 shows that the Taking into account the physical signi cance of the
corhydrogen masses in Kazarian galaxies vary in the wide rected pro le width V0 = V = sin i and assuming purely
range from 0:3 109M to 29 109M while indicative total circular motions we obtain V0 2Vm where Vm is
maxmasses change from 5:4 109M to 619 109M . Compared imum of rotational velocity whose values for 14 Kazarian
to this, the ratios MH=L, MH=Mi, Mi=L and mean pro- galaxies are given in Paper I.
jected H I density h occupy a somewhat smaller range. In Figs. 3a-b the mean regression lines are shown along
Wide dispersion of these values shows clearly that with the points representing our sample galaxies.
Kazarian galaxies do not constitute a homogeneous sam- It is clearly seen that all Kazarian galaxies follow the
ple by none of commonly used H I related parameters. trend indicated by the mean regression line in Figs. 3a and
Distributions presented in Fig. 2 show that the vast 3b. However, in Fig. 3a our sample appears to be located
majority of our sample galaxies lie within the classical above the mean regression line; this is most probably due
limits, and just a few of them are situated outside. to the fact that our Vm values were derived by
Data from Table 1 indicate that these galaxies are Kaz ing the observed line widths for turbulent motions and
63 and 211 for MH=L values; Kaz 3, 63, 65, 69, 211 and thus are, on the mean, smaller than the non-corrected
pa579 for Mi=L; Kaz 65, 69, 211 and 228 for MH=Mi. Finally, rameter used in Shostak's relation. In Fig. 3b all Kazarian
Kaz 512 has a peculiar value of h. They are all listed in galaxies are dispersed around the mean regression line and
Table 2. It must be noted, however that Kaz 3 and 579 only one galaxy (Kaz 512) clearly deviates from that line.
cannot be considered with certainty as peculiars due to In the context of this paper it is more important to
demontheir Vm and Mi data ambiguity (caused by small inclina- strate the location of all Kazarian galaxies (which indicate
tion) as well as Kaz 512 whose signal is poorly detected they generally follow the normal galaxies) than to perform
with S/N ratio less than 3 (see Paper I). a quantative comparison since our sample galaxies do not
It is well known that neutral hydrogen is rare in el- comply with of the same restrictions applied by Shostak.
liptical galaxies, and a lack of the meaningful average H I Taking into account all of the aforementioned, the
parameters do exist for these systems which in fact contain galaxies Kaz 3, 63, 65, 69, 211 and 512 can be considered
a); H I masses, in 109M
as peculiars possessing H I related parameters outside the
limits representing the classical objects. Some of these
objects will be briefly commented on in Sect. 5.
4. Comparison with Markarian and blue Haro galaxies
Comparison with other peculiar galaxies (Markarian and
blue Haro, in particular) in the same range of
(Bottinelli et al. 1973a,b; 1975)
in Table 3 shows that the variation range of derived
parameters for Kazarian galaxies is practically the same for
MH=Mi, Mi=L and h values. Notice that the units used
for comparison are the same as given in Table 1.
In spite of a somewhat di erent range of the luminosity
and hydrogen mass variation compared with Markarians,
our sample galaxies vary within the same limits when
considering representative ratio MH=L. By this parameter
Kazarian and Markarian galaxies vary in the same and
relatively narrow range compared with blue Haro objects.
It is worth noting a well known fact that the same
values for classical galaxies
(Heidmann 1969; Roberts
1969; Balkowski 1973; Shostak 1978; Bottinelli et al. 1982;
Roberts & Haynes 1994)
do not di er from those for
Markarians and Haros
(Bottinelli et al. 1973a,b; 1975)
The intermixing of Kazarian, Markarian and blue Haro
galaxies is well seen on the three-ratio diagram (showing
MH=Mi versus MH=L plot) displayed in Fig. 4.
It is well known that primarily a given normal galaxy
of the Hubble sequence has particular parameters
corresponding to its morphological type
Bottinelli et al. 1982)
and then a second approximation
these values are also related to the luminosity.
In the case of Kazarian galaxies (as well as Markarians
and Haro blue galaxies) not all the integral parameters
of a given galaxy have the values expected for a single
morphological type. To demonstrate this, we determined
for each Kazarian galaxy its most probable morphological
type expected from the derived values of the 5
parameters ( h, h=a0, MH=Mi, MH=L and W ) following the
method described in
Bottinelli et al. (1975)
. Obviously a
good agreement with its classical type is always expected
when this method is applied for a single galaxy.
As a result, we found only 7 galaxies with all above
mentioned parameters corresponding to its given
morphological type. A mild agreement was found for 5 galaxies
and none for the remaining 11 galaxies of our sample.
Taking into account the luminosity e ect which leads
to the modi cation of all used parameters except h
and following the scheme described in
Bottinelli et al. (1975)
we nally found that no classical
morphological type can be assigned for 7 galaxies (Kaz 23,
63, 69, 211, 228, 512, 579) while well de ned types for 10
galaxies were obtained.
All this suggests a rather high relative number of
Kazarian galaxies (7 out of 23) featuring certain
peculiarities. The careful comparative study of their optical
and H I properties is needed to clarify the nature of these
In the next section brief comments on the optical
properties of some peculiar objects are given.
5. Brief comments on peculiar galaxies Kaz 63, Kaz 65,
Kaz 69 and Kaz 211
As it can be seen from Table 2, the galaxies Kaz 63, 65, 69
and 211 have unusual values for at least two H I related
parameters (Kaz 211 is being distinguished by three
parameters). These unusual ratios are clear evidence of their
peculiar character, so it seems interesting to inquire about
their optical data.
Kaz 63 constitutes a pair with UGC 10324 (Paper I).
Although its radio signal is rather well separated from
that of UGC 10324, the latter may be the cause of such
unusual values of H I mass to luminosity and total mass
to luminosity ratios.
The influence of the environment is a well-known
phenomenon - for example, the galaxies with close
companions have on average a lower HI-to-luminosity ratio than
. Obviously, Kaz 63 does
not follow that trend having (along with Kaz 211) the
highest relative H I content among our sample galaxies.
Data on the optical spectra of Kaz 65
are rather poor: in the range 5600 − 7000 A the continuum
is faint and the only lines identi ed are [NII] 6584 A and
H which are rather usual for these galaxies.
Kaz 65 (IRAS 16155+6831) was thought to be very
luminous X-ray source and included in the Catalogue
of cross-correlated sources from ROSAT All-Sky Survey
(RASS) with the IRAS Point Source Catalogue published
Boller et al. (1992)
. More recently,
Moran et al. (1994)
reported Kaz 65 as a H II galaxy which was removed from
the Boller's catalogue by its authors following the new
processing of the RASS data.
Thus, more detailed observational data on Kaz 65 are
needed to verify the nature of its peculiar H I related
Galaxies Kaz 69 and 211 are studied in detail by
Kazarian & Kazarian (1990)
. Both are low luminosity
dwarfs (Mpg = −16m:3 and −16m:2 respectively for Kaz
69 and 211) with rather di erent physical parameters.
Thus, the electron densities in the central parts of these
galaxies are 230 cm−3 and 2800 cm−3 respectively for
Kaz 69 and 211 with corresponding total gas amounts of
1 104 M and 2:5 102 M due to the larger size of Kaz
Full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a number of
[O III], [N II], [S II] as well as H and H emission lines in
the spectra of Kaz 69 ( 300 km s−1) are certainly higher
than those observed in classical galaxies. There are clear
indications that this galaxy is a LINER satisfying criteria
The elevated value of the indicative total mass for Kaz
69 may be partly caused by a rather high relative amount
of the dust evidenced by a narrow dark lane crossing the
galaxy buldge, clearly seen on its direct images.
It is known from the optical data that Kazarian galaxies
exhibit large varieties of morphological
(Kazarian et al.
1981; Tamazian 1987)
(Kazarian et al. 1981;
Kazarian & Tamazian 1982, 1993; Kazarian 1987)
(Tamazian 1983; 1984)
properties. From this
point of view they are rather close to the galaxies from
other peculiar lists such as Markarian
(du Puy 1970)
and Kiso ultraviolet-bright objects
(Maehara et al. 1987)
More than 80% of these galaxies show strong
emission lines of Balmer serie and forbidden lines of [O II],
[O III], [N II], [S II] etc. frequently observed in the above
mentioned lists of UV-excess galaxies which implies
significant gas amounts excited by unusually elevated relative
number of hot O, B stars in vast majority of these objects.
The present study demonstrate that the same large
variety of properties is being observed for non-Seyfert
Kazarian galaxies when considering another set of the
astrophysical parameters related with their hydrogen
We conclude that Kazarian galaxies do not constitute
a homogeneous sample by any of the commonly used H I
related parameters. It is worth noting that these
parameters vary in the same range as those for the classical
On the other hand, the present study indicates a
number of galaxies whose H I properties certainly di er from
those for classical normal galaxies, thus showing the
peculiar character of a rather high relative number ( 30%)
of Kazarian objects.
Further comparative study of their optical and H I
properties would be welcomed to clarify the nature of
Acknowledgements. The author would like to thank the
referee, Prof. L. Bottinelli for valuable comments.
The author has made use of data from Lyon-Meudon
Extragalactic Database (LEDA) compiled by the LEDA team
at the CRAL-Observatoire de Lyon (France).
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