Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures in Kansas

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Sep 2018

Water conservation is increasingly important when selecting turfgrasses. Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a C4 grass, is more drought resistant than C3 grasses. However, there is some resistance to the use of zoysiagrass in lawns and golf courses due to its extended dormant period when turf is brown. The objective of this study was to evaluate mowing height, and tall fescue seeding rate and time for establishment of a mixed stand with seeded zoysiagrass. Seeding zoysiagrass and tall fescue together in June generally resulted in a less uniform mixture than seeding zoysiagrass in June and then seeding tall fescue in September. Tall fescue seeded in September at 8 lb of pure live seed (PLS)/1,000 ft2 resulted the most uniform mixture of the two species.

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Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures in Kansas

Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures in K ansas Mingying Xiang 0 Jack D. Fry 0 Megan M. Kennelly 0 0 Kansas State University , USA Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr Part of the Horticulture Commons Recommended Citation - Article 5 This report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright 2018 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products not mentioned. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures in Kansas Abstract Water conservation is increasingly important when selecting turfgrasses. Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a C4 grass, is more drought resistant than C3 grasses. However, there is some resistance to the use of zoysiagrass in lawns and golf courses due to its extended dormant period when turf is brown. The objective of this study was to evaluate mowing height, and tall fescue seeding rate and time for establishment of a mixed stand with seeded zoysiagrass. Seeding zoysiagrass and tall fescue together in June generally resulted in a less uniform mixture than seeding zoysiagrass in June and then seeding tall fescue in September. Tall fescue seeded in September at 8 lb of pure live seed (PLS)/1,000 ft2 resulted the most uniform mixture of the two species. Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Cover Page Footnote Contribution number 18-630-S. This Research Report article is available in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: http://newprairiepress.org/ kaesrr/vol4/iss6/5 July 2018 K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Turfgrass Research Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures in Kansas Mingying Xiang, Jack D. Fry, and Megan M. Kennelly Summary Water conservation is increasingly important when selecting turfgrasses. Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a C4 grass, is more drought resistant than C3 grasses. However, there is some resistance to the use of zoysiagrass in lawns and golf courses due to its extended dormant period when turf is brown. The objective of this study was to evaluate mowing height, and tall fescue seeding rate and time for establishment of a mixed stand with seeded zoysiagrass. Seeding zoysiagrass and tall fescue together in June generally resulted in a less uniform mixture than seeding zoysiagrass in June and then seeding tall fescue in September. Tall fescue seeded in September at 8 lb of pure live seed (PLS)/1,000 ft2 resulted the most uniform mixture of the two species. Rationale Water conservation is an increasingly important factor when selecting turfgrasses for use in the landscape. Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a warm-season grass, is more drought resistant than cool-season grasses. However, there is resistance on the part of homeowners, and some golf course managers, to use zoysiagrass due to its extended period of brown color when dormant, which is longer than cool-season grasses. Mixing zoysiagrass with a cool-season grass, such as tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), to establish a perennial sward has several potential advantages. First, tall fescue enhances late fall and early spring color of the sward while zoysiagrass provides quality during periods of drought stress. In addition, a mixture will allow adaptation across a range of environmental conditions and enhanced resistance to biotic pests. Therefore, this mixture may provide a quality sward allowing reduced irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide inputs compared to monostands of either species. This View all turfgrass research reports online at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr combination also maintains acceptable visual color in autumn and early spring when zoysiagrass monostands exhibit a brown, dormant color. Objectives The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of mowing height, and ‘Corona’ tall fescue seeding time and rate, on establishment of a perennial mixed sward with ‘Compadre’ zoysiagrass in Kansas. Study Description A field study was initiated in July 2015 at the Kansas State University Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center in Manhattan and Olathe, KS. For simplicity, only Manhattan data are shown in this report. Plots were arranged in a split-plot design, with mowing height (0.75 or 2 inches, representing fairway and lawn height, respectively) as the whole plot. Sub-plots consisted of timing and rate of tall fescue seeding. Whole plots measured 10 × 15 ft and were replicated four times. Sub plots were 5 × 5 ft and there were six sub-plot replicates within each whole plot. ‘Compadre’ zoysiagrass was seeded in all plots at 1 lb of PLS/1,000 ft2 on June 9, 2015. ‘Corona’ tall fescue was seeded at differing times and rates as the sub-plot treatments: 1) June, at the same time zoysiagrass was seeded; and 2) in September into the established stand of zoysiagrass. Data were collected on visual turf quality each week on a 1 to 9 scale (1 = poorest color, density, and uniformity; 6 = minimum acceptable quality; 9 = optimum color, density, and uniformity) and fall color (on a 1 to 9 scale, 1 = brown and 9 = dark green). Tall fescue incidence was determined in December, when zoysiagrass had lost all green color, by counting the presence of tall fescue under a 196-intersection grid that measured 4.6 × 4.6 ft with 2.5 inches between each of 14 gridlines in either direction (% tall fescue incidence = tall fescue frequency/196 × 100). Percentage of tall fescue cover in December was also determined using digital image analysis. All data were subjected to analysis of variance using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Fisher’s protected least significant difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05) was used to detect treatment differences. Results A significant mowing height × timing × date of seeding interaction and a significant rate × date interaction were observed on tall fescue incidence (%) determined using the grid. Seeding tall fescue in September resulted in higher incidence of this species at both mowing heights (Figure 1). Furthermore, seeding tall fescue at 8 lb of PLS/1,000 ft2 provided higher tall fescue incidence compared to other seeding rates (Figure 2), and this resulted in better late fall and early spring color. % , e u c s e f l l a T % , e u c s e f l l a T 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 A. Mowing at 0.75 inches Dec 11, 2015 Aug 1, 2016 56.4a 42.2b 32.0c 4 lb PLS/1,000 ft 8 lb PLS/1,000 ft


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Mingying Xiang, Jack D. Fry, Megan M. Kennelly. Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures in Kansas, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 2018,