Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Sep 2018

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the myofibrillar fragmentation index, Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory traits of longissimus lumborum (strip loin), and the semitendinosus (eye of round) steaks. Study Description: Forty beef strip loins and 40 eye of rounds were collected, divided into anatomical location, and cut into steaks. Steaks used for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory panel review were cooked to 160°F. For Warner-Bratzler, six 1-in cores were sheared with a Warner-Bratzler shear head. Sensory steaks were served to panelists trained according to American Meat Science Association guidelines for sensory evaluation. Procedures described by Culler et al. (1978) were used to determine myofibrillar fragmentation index. The Bottom Line: The correlation between myofibrillar fragmentation index, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory measures of tenderness were weak, indicat­ing myofibrillar fragmentation index was not a reliable indicator of beef tenderness for the muscles evaluated.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

https://newprairiepress.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7547&context=kaesrr

Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks

Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks L. L. Prill 0 1 K . J. Phelps 0 1 J. M. Gonzalez 0 1 T. A. Houser 0 1 0 Kansas State University , USA 1 Kansas State University , Manhattan , USA Recommended Citation Prill, L. L.; Phelps, K. J.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Houser, T. A.; Boyle, E. A.; and O'Quinn, T. G. (2018) "Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks," Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: Vol. 4: Iss. 1. https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.7547 - See next page for additional authors Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr Part of the Meat Science Commons This report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright 2018 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products not mentioned. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks Study Description: Forty beef strip loins and 40 eye of rounds were collected, divided into anatomical location, and cut into steaks. Steaks used for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory panel review were cooked to 160°F. For Warner-Bratzler, six 1-in cores were sheared with a Warner-Bratzler shear head. Sensory steaks were served to panelists trained according to American Meat Science Association guidelines for sensory evaluation. Procedures described by Culler et al. (1978) were used to determine myofibrillar fragmentation index. Th e Bottom Line: The correlation between myofibrillar fragmentation index, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory measures of tenderness were weak, indicating myofibrillar fragmentation index was not a reliable indicator of beef tenderness for the muscles evaluated. Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Authors L. L. Prill, K. J. Phelps, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, and T. G. O'Quinn This Meat Science article is available in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/ vol4/iss1/20 A K CATTLEMEN’S DAY Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks L.L. Prill, K.J. Phelps, J.M. Gonzalez, T.A. Houser, E.A.E. Boyle, and T.G. O’Quinn Introduction In the beef industry, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor are associated with beef palatability and overall eating experience (Smith and Carpenter, 1974). The odds of overall palatability failing when tenderness is acceptable is 10%, whereas the odds of overall palatability failing when tenderness is unacceptable is 69% (O’Quinn et al., 2016). The industry always strives to improve beef quality and palatability; thus, it is important to study tenderness in order to improve consumer satisfaction. Myofibrillar fragmentation index is a measure of tenderness that has previously been associated with sensory tenderness ratings (Olson et al., 1977). However, to our knowledge, little research has evaluated myofibrillar fragmentation differences within and between muscles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the myofibrillar fragmentation index, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory traits of strip loins (longissimus lumborum) and the eye of round (semitendinosus) steaks. Experimental Procedures Forty beef strip loins (Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications #180) and 40 eye of rounds (Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications #171C) were collected from a Midwest beef processor and transported to the Kansas State University Meats Laboratory, Manhattan, KS. Sub-primals were divided into anatomical location (anterior, medial, and posterior for longissiumus lumborum; proximal and distal for semitendinosus) and cut into three 1-in thick steaks and aged 14 days. Within location, steaks were randomly assigned to Warner-Bratzler shear force, trained sensory panel evaluation, or myofibrillar fragmentation index analysis. Steaks used for Warner-Bratzler shear force and the trained sensory panel review were cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F on electric clamshell grills (Cuisinart Griddler Deluxe, Cuisinart, East Windsor, NJ). Steaks used for Warner-Bratzler shear force were chilled overnight at 40°F, and six 0.4-in cores were removed parallel to the orientation of the muscle fiber and sheared once perpendicular to the muscle fiber orientation through the center using an Instron testing machine (Model 5569, Instron Corp., Norwood, MA) with a Warner-Bratzler shear head. Sensory panel steaks were cut into 0.5 × 0.5 × 1-in cubes and immediately served to sensory panelists trained following American Meat Science Association guidelines for sensory evaluation (2016). Myofibrillar fragmentation index was determined using procedures described by Culler et al. (1978). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with muscle as the fixed effect. Sub-primal location data were analyzed independent of muscle and as a completely randomized design with anatomical location as the fixed effect. Results and Discussion When comparing muscles, there were muscle differences (P<0.05) for all variables measured as shown in Table 1 except for off-flavor intensity. Steaks from longissimus lumborum had lower (P<0.05)Warner-Bratzler shear force, sensory panel connective tissue amount, and myofibrillar fragmentation index values than semitendinosus steaks. Additionally, longissimus lumborum steaks had higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar tenderness and overall tenderness sensory panel scores. There were location effects (P<0.05) for sensory and Warner-Bratzler shear force values of both muscles. Warner-Bratzler shear force values of all three locations within the longissimus lumborum were different (P<0.05) from one another (Table 2). Panelists rated anterior steaks higher (P<0.05) for myofibrillar and overall tenderness than middle and posterior steaks, which were not different (P>0.05) from each other. Panelists detected less (P <0.05) connective tissue in anterior steaks when compared to middle and posterior steaks, which were not different (P>0.05) from each other. In the semitendinosus, proximal steaks had higher (P<0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory connective tissue amounts than distal steaks (Table 3). Proximal steaks had less (P<0.05) myofibrillar and overall tenderness than distal steaks. Within each sub-primal, anatomical location had no effect (P>0.05) on myofibrillar fragmentation index value. Myofibrillar fragmentation index was correlated (P<0.05) to myofibrillar tenderness (r=-0.18), connective tissue (r=0.11), and overall tenderness (r=-0.15); however, myofibrillar fragmentation index was not correlated (P=0.056) to Warner-Bratzler shear force. Implications In longissimus lumborum and the semitendinosus, myofibrillar fragmentation index was not dependent upon anatomical location. Moreover, the correlation between myofibrillar fragmentation index, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory measures of tenderness were weak, indicating myofibrillar fragmentation index was not a reliable indicator of beef tenderness for these muscles. References American Meat Science Association. 2016. Research guidelines for cookery, sensory evaluation, and instrumental tenderness measurements of meat. Second edition, version 1.02. American Meat Science Association, Champaign, IL. Smith, G. C., and Z. L. Carpenter. 1974. Eating quality of animal products and their fat content. Changing the fat content and composition of animal products. p 124-137. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. O’Quinn, T. G. (2016). Evaluation of the contribution of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor to the overall consumer beef eating experience. The Angus Foundation, St. Joseph, MO. Item Anterior Posterior P-value Myofibrillar fragmentation index 44.20 46.99 0.98 Warner-Bratzler shear force, lb 7.03c 8.00a < 0.01 Sensory attribute1 Initial juiciness 59.99 61.92 58.51 1.27 0.09 Sustained juiciness 45.85 48.78 45.11 1.49 0.09 Myofibrillar tenderness 76.84a 72.32b 71.86b 1.37 0.01 Connective tissue amount 7.28a 9.81b 10.31b 0.78 0.01 Overall tenderness 74.29a 69.31b 68.56b 1.55 0.01 Beef-flavor intensity 35.16a,c 38.46b 37.11b,c 0.86 0.02 Off-flavor intensity 0.68 1.14 1.30 0.28 0.26 a,b,cWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P<0.05). 10 = extremely dry, extremely dry, extremely tough, none, extremely tough, extremely unbeef-like, extremely bland, and extremely bland; 100 = extremely juicy, extremely juicy, extremely tender, abundant, extremely tender, extremely beef-like, extremely intense, and extremely intense. Item Distal P-value Myofibrillar fragmentation index 63.49 0.78 Warner-Bratzler shear force, lb 9.17b < 0.01 Sensory attribute1 Initial juiciness 42.79b 49.16a 1.29 < 0.01 Sustained juiciness 29.53b 35.90a 1.41 0.01 Myofibrillar tenderness 34.81b 53.54a 1.63 < 0.01 Connective tissue amount 37.20b 20.45a 1.64 < 0.01 Overall tenderness 24.95b 46.85a 1.70 < 0.01 Beef flavor intensity 32.54 33.65 0.69 0.26 Off-flavor intensity 1.04 1.62 0.34 0.24 a,bWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P<0.05). 10 = extremely dry, extremely dry, extremely tough, none, extremely tough, extremely unbeef-like, extremely bland, and extremely bland; 100 = extremely juicy, extremely juicy, extremely tender, abundant, extremely tender, extremely beef-like, extremely intense, and extremely intense.


This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://newprairiepress.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7547&context=kaesrr

L. L. Prill, K. J. Phelps, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn. Relationship of Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index to Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Palatability Tenderness of Longissimus Lumborum and Semitendinosus Steaks, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 2018,