A new species of Leptopulvinaria Kanda from China, with a key to species (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Coccidae)
A new species of Leptopulvinaria Kanda from China, with a key to species (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Coccidae)
Xiaoying He 0
Sanan Wu 0
0 Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University , Beijing 100083 , China 2 Shanghai Forestry Station , Shanghai 200072 , China
A new species Leptopulvinaria sapinda sp. n. is described and illustrated based on adult females collected on Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae) from Shanghai and Jiangsu. This is the first report of Leptopulvinaria species in China. A key to the species of Leptopulvinaria Kanda is provided.
eol>China; Pulvinariini; soft scale insect; taxonomy
The family Coccidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) is the third largest
family of the Coccomorpha after the Diaspididae (armored scales) and
Pseudococcidae (mealybugs), consisting of 1185 described species, distributed in 169 genera
all over the world
(García Morales et al. 2018, Williams and Hodgson 2014)
Species belonging to this family are widespread throughout the world and many of them
are important pests on agricultural, horticultural, and ornamental plants (Henderson
and Hodgson 2005). These include Pulvinaria salicicola (Borchsenius), which caused
much damage to growth of roadside afforested willows in Lindian County,
HeilongjiCopyright Xiaoying He et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ang Province of China with an injury rate is as high as 90%
(Zhang et al. 1993)
Ceroplastes japonicus (Green), which can cause deformation or death of poplars and
the percentage of damaged trees is more than 65% in some areas of Lianyungang city,
(Wang et al. 2008)
The genus Leptopulvinaria was established by
, based on its type
species, Leptopulvinaria elaeocarpi Kanda, 1960, and it was diagnosed by absence of tarsal
and claw digitules.
placed this genus in the tribe Pulvinariini.
redescribed the type species based on the type specimen and found that it did
in fact have tarsal digitules and claw digitules. He did not affirm the exact taxonomic
positon of the species, since it is difficult to ascertain the exact distribution of the dorsal
and ventral tubular ducts owing to poor condition of type specimens. Recently,
and Amano (2008)
redescribed L. elaeocarpi based on newly collected material and
described the second species L. kawaii Tanaka & Amano from Japan. They also observed
the production of ovisacs of both these species at their oviposition periods and clearly
and definitely placed this genus in the tribe Pulvinariini.
Choi and Lee (2017)
L. kawaii from South Korea. Currently, species of this genus are therefore known only
from Japan and South Korea and the genus includes only two species, namely
Leptopulvinaria elaeocarpi Kanda and Leptopulvinaria kawaii Tanaka & Amano.
In the course of our taxonomic study of soft scales (Coccidae) in China, we found
an undescribed species which clearly belongs to this genus. Here, we describe and
illustrate adult female specimens of this new species. This report is the first formal record
of the occurrence of Leptopulvinaria species in China, and it may be useful for further
taxonomic and biogeographic study of the genus and its species. A key to all three
species of Leptopulvinaria is provided.
Materials and methods
Slide mounting methods for the specimens in this study followed
. Terminology of the morphological features used in the description
Kondo and Hodgson (2013)
Tanaka and Kondo (2015)
avoided using the term “pregenital disc-pores” or “perivulvar pores”, because in several
species of Coccidae, these pores are not restricted to the pregenital or perivulvar area,
and can be present throughout the medial area of the venter; so that using the term
“pregenital” or “perivulvar” may be misleading. The species described in this study also
have the pores not only in the pregenital area but also on the medial area of the venter.
The term “multilocular pore” is therefore used herein for the pores with multiple loculi,
with the exception of spiracular pores. The mounted specimens were examined under a
compound light microscope (Leica DME) fitted with an ocular micrometer. All
measurements were given (minimum-maximum range) in micrometers (µm), except for
body length and width which are given in millimeters (mm).
All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, the Department of Forestry
Protection, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China (BFUC).
Type species. Leptopulvinaria elaeocarpi Kanda, 1960, by monotypy and original
Generic diagnosis. Adult female. Body elongate oval, broadest at thorax or
anterior abdomen. Dorsum. Derm membranous. Tubular ducts and microducts frequent.
Tubercles convex, occasionally absent. Margin. Setae spinose, each with a simple
pointed apex. Stigmatic clefts not deep but distinct; each with one to four (usually three)
stigmatic spines. Venter. Antennae with eight or nine (usually eight) segments. Legs
each with a well-developed tibio-tarsal articulation and an articulatory sclerosis.
Multilocular pores each with nine to eleven loculi, present mainly across most abdominal
segments. Spiracular pores each with four to six (usually five) loculi. Two types of
tubular ducts present. With one or two pairs of long setae medially on all abdominal and
thoracic segments (occasionally lacking on thoracic segments). For further diagnostic
Tanaka and Amano (2008)
Key to Leptopulvinaria species based on slide-mounted adult females’ morphology
Ventral tubular ducts absent medially on head and thoracic segments, though
rarely a few may be present ......................................................................... 2
Ventral tubular ducts present medially on head and thoracic segments..........
............................................................. L. kawaii Tanaka & Amano, 2008
Dorsal tubular ducts, microducts and setae arranged in a reticulate pattern,
multilocular pores absent on head and thorax, though occasionally a few
present on metathorax, preopercular pores restricted to anterior anal plates .......
.......................................................................... L. elaeocarpi Kanda, 1960
Dorsal tubular ducts, microducts and setae not arranged in a reticulate
pattern, multilocular pores numerous on head and thorax, preopercular pores
extend from anterior anal plates to prothorax..................... L. sapinda sp. n.
Leptopulvinaria sapinda sp. n.
Material examined. Holotype: Adult female. CHINA, Shanghai City, Qingpu District,
7.vi.2017, on Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae), coll. Yangyang Han, 1♀(BFUC).
Paratypes: Same data as holotype, 18♀(BFUC); CHINA, Jiangsu Province, Kunshan
City, 11.X.2016, on same host as holotype, coll. Lei Gao, 11♀♀(BFUC).
Description. Adult female. Unmounted material: (Figure 1A–C). Adult female
more or less pointed anteriorly, usually somewhat asymmetrical, the young one whitish
or light yellowish (Figure 1A), changing to with dark brown reticulations on dorsum
except midline, the mature one black, with a longitudinal yellowish stripe along
middle line of dorsum (Figure 1C). After oviposition (Figure 1B), the dorsum with wax
filaments mainly on the marginal and submarginal area; wax secreted forming a short
Mounted material (Figure 2A–R). Body (Figure 2A) elongate oval, 2.2–5.3 mm
long, 1.2–3.0 mm wide. Margin with a slight indentation at each stigmatic cleft and
sometimes also near each eyespot. Anal cleft 400–770 µm, approximately 1/6–1/7
Dorsum. Derm membranous. Dermal areolations (Figure 2R) well developed.
Dorsal tubercles (Figure 2M) convex, each 11–13 µm in diameter, present on
submarginal area, 12–14 between anterior spiracular clefts, 3–5 between each anterior
and posterior spiracular clefts, and 10–15 between each posterior spiracular clefts and
anal cleft. Preopercular pores (Figure 2L) circular, obvious, each with a diameter of
6–8 µm, present in a small group of 36 to 56 in front of anal plates, extending to
prothorax. Tubular ducts (Figure 2P) of one type, outer ductule 8–10 µm long, 2–3 µm
wide, inner ductule 12–17 µm long, 1 µm wide, arranged in a reticulate pattern with
microducts (Figure 2N). Dorsal setae (Figure 2Q) 6–7 µm long, spiniform, arranged
like tubular ducts and microducts. Anal plates (Figure 2K1) each triangular, 150–158
µm long, 63–75 µm wide, anterolateral margin slightly concave, 78–100 µm long;
posterolateral margin slightly convex, 115–138 µm long. Each plate with four apical
setae. Ano-genital fold (Figure 2K2) with two pair of setae along anterior margin and
two pairs laterally. Anal ring subcircular, with one or two rows of translucent pores and
six or eight anal ring setae. Eyespots present near margin.
Margin. Marginal setae (Figure 2O) 14–29 µm long, straight, or slightly curved,
rather bluntly pointed; distributed as follow: 60–69 between anterior stigmatic cleft,
21–27 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft, and 52–64 between each
posterior stigmatic cleft and anal cleft. Stigmatic clefts (Figure 2C) not deep but
distinct; with three (except one with four) stigmatic spines in each cleft; median spine
32–56 µm long, 1.5–2.3 times as long as lateral spines, slightly curved, bluntly
pointed; lateral spines slightly curved, bluntly pointed, 14–34 µm long. Eyespots present
Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae: one or two pairs of long setae, 125–238
µm long, present medially on all abdominal and thoracic segments, and also near each
coxa (a few pairs of setae occasionally absent on thoracic segments); three pairs of long
setae present between antennae, 225–258 µm long; short setae (Figure 2E) 11–14 µm
long, slender, acute, mostly straight, and distributed evenly. Antennae (Figure 2B)
well developed, 8–segmented, 493–678 µm long, third segment longest; length of
segments I to VIII (µm): 60–75, 75–113, 90–150, 78–125, 65–93, 48–83, 38–68,
43–53, respectively; segment VI; VII; VIII each with 1, 1, 4 fleshy setae. Clypeolabral
shield 128–168 µm long, 125–168 µm wide. Labium 68–80 µm long, 80–113 µm
wide. Legs (Figure 2H) well developed, with a tibio-tarsal articulation and an
articulatory sclerosis; claw without denticle; tarsal digitules slender, knobbed; claw digitules
broad, and expanded at apex; hind trochanter + femur 275–370 µm long, hind tibia +
tarsus 385–558 µm long; claw 35–45 µm long. Ratio of lengths of hind tibia + tarsus
to hind trochanter + femur 1.4–1.8. Ratio of lengths of hind tarsus to tibia 1.9–2.3.
Anterior spiracles each 68–88 µm long, 45–60 µm wide; posterior spiracles (Figure 2F)
each 75–100 µm long, 55–75 µm wide. Spiracular pores (Figure 2D) present in narrow
bands one to three pores wide between margin and each spiracle; each mainly with five
loculi, 5 µm in diameter, 22–43 in anterior spiracular pore band, 33–56 in posterior
spiracular pore band. Multilocular pores (Figure 2J) 7–8 µm in diameter, mainly ten
loculi, frequent around anal area, in transverse bands on abdomen, and also scattered
in head and thorax. Ventral microducts (Figure 2G) scattered. Ventral tubular ducts
(Figure 2I) of two types present: I) a duct (Figure 2I1) with a narrow inner ductule and
a well-developed terminal gland; outer ductule 10–15 µm long, 3–4 µm wide, inner
ductule 16–20 µm long, 1–2 µm wide, 5 µm wide for terminal gland; present
submarginally on posterior segments, where they are mixed with type II ducts, a few ducts
also present medially on abdominal segments (occasionally present on submarginal
head and thorax). II) a duct (Figure 2I2) with a slender inner filament; outer ductule
14–16 µm long, 2–3 µm wide, inner ductule 13–18 µm long, 1 µm wide; numerous in
submarginal area and mixed with ducts of type I, but becoming sparse on thorax and
head, a few present medially on abdominal segments.
Distribution. China (Jiangsu and Shanghai)
Host plant. Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae)
Etymology. The specific epithet is taken from the genus name of host plant.
Remarks. The new species is easily distinguished from the two other
Leptopulvinaria species by having dorsal tubular ducts, microducts, and setae arranged in a
reticulate pattern, and numerous multilocular pores on head and thorax. Moreover, L.
sapinda sp. n. has a group of preopercular pores extending from anterior anal plates to
prothorax, and has 10–15 dorsal tubercles between each posterior stigmatic cleft and
the anal cleft, whereas L. elaeocarpi has a small group of preopercular pores restricted
to anterior anal plates, and 1–4 dorsal tubercles between each posterior stigmatic cleft
and the anal cleft. In L. kawaii, preopercular pores are absent (or if there are any, then
they are difficult to see) and there are only 0–7 dorsal tubercles between each posterior
stigmatic cleft and the anal cleft.
During the pre-oviposition period, the adult females of this new species suck plant
juices mainly along the main and lateral veins of leaves (Figure 1C). When ovipositing,
they usually climb to the trunk and branches (although occasionally they stay on the
leaves) to lay eggs (Figure 1B, 1D). Similar behavior, namely changing infesting place
on the host trees before ovipositon is also reported in L. kawaii
fact may indicate that L. sapinda sp. n. is probably close to L. kawaii and supports the
placement of the new species in this genus.
We are grateful to Dr. Hirotaka Tanaka (Ehime University, Faculty of Horticulture,
Japan) for providing related papers and giving constructive comments on the
manuscript. The manuscript also benefited greatly from the comments provided by Dr.
Jinyeong Choi (Seoul National University, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology,
South Korea) and Dr. Roger Blackman. This study is supported by the National
Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31772488).
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