New United States Zoocecidia

Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Sep 2018

B. W. Wells

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New United States Zoocecidia

International Journal of Wells--New United States Zoocecidia VOL. XXVI[I 0 PLATE 0 0 State College , Raleigh, North Carolina , USA f.ovea punctiform; ocellar basin broadly limited by a distinct rontal crest, surrounding the reed-inn ocellus; antennal lurrows obscure, interrupted near middle of their length; vertical furrows deep, broad, longer than broad; postocellar area with a deep mesal urrow connecting with shallow inconspicuous ocellar furrow; surface of head dull; mesonotum dull, indefinitely punctate or striate; mesoscutellum with distinct urrows on each side, polished on meson; metscutellum polished, impunctuate; mesopleura dull, sparsely sericeous; cerci distinct, short, porrect; caudal margin of caudal sternum rounded; wings hyaline, costa reddish, veins and stigma, inuscated. Lenth 8 ram. Habitat" Ithaca, New York. No. 20-1. The general appearance of this species, Lhe arrangement of the pale color and the line of the abdominal segments is similar to that of Strongylogaster politus t)rov. The difference in the coloration of the abdomen will differentiate it fom Thrinax impressatus Prov. IEW UITITED STATES Z00CECIDIA. B B. W. WnLS, In the dscriptions below, the author has indicated in each case whether the gall is a kataplasma or a prosoplasma. These terms of Kiister’s pertaining to the 1.ower and higher galls respectively, deserve a prominent place in gall descriptions, for they connote very significant conditions. The writer has pointed out (Botanical Gazette, May, 1921) that these groups have an evolutionary relationship. By "kataplasma" Kiister means those indefinite galls whose structure is developed t.hrough hyperplasia of embryonic tissue, the end product not becoming in its differentiation, orientation and form of tissues, fundamentally different from the normal plant part; they represent inhibitions of the normal differentiations, the more advanced ones thus approach homogenity. "Prosoplasmas," on the other hand, are definite galls whose structure differs fundamentally from the normal plant part, the tissues in their form and orientation characters constituting an aggregation of new qualities. In presenting these descriptions, it is with the hope that these f.orms may again be collected and the adult stages of the cecidozoons be obtained. Not until the descriptions of the adults appear should names be attached to galls; in the present paper the forms have been given a number which can readily be referred to by any future investigator. I should like to here repeat statement made an earlier paper: "The custom on the part of some, of applying specific name t.o an insect or mite, merely on the basis of the intimately associated gall, is to be deplored." The familiar "catch-all" generic names have been used in those cases in which the nature of the parasitic organism was determined, viz., "Cecidomyia" for an itonidid form, "Cynips" for a cynipidous form, and "Eriophyes" for a mite gall-maker. The galls herein described and believed to be heretofore unreported, are arranged on the basis of the plant affected. The plant genera are arranged alphabetically, Gray’s Manual being followed in the matter of nomenclature. Amelanchier Cecidomyia sp. Cecidium nov. Fig. 1. 1. On Amelanchier canadensis (L) Mefic., leaf; prosoplasma, appendicular, diverticulum type; stout balloon-shape with attenuate tip, 3-5 into. long, 2-3 ram. wide, reddish purple, surface, however, with bloom which gives it a bluish tinge; galls commonly ound in groups of two, on under side o leaf, each gall tilted olti of the perpendicular position; opening in leaf-blade on side opposite the gall, minute, slit-like with definitely raised lips; cavity small in the broader, distal part connected with opening by a relatively narrow canal, walls thick with rather prominent veins; no common, Cedar loint, O. Types in author’s collection. Cecidomyia sp. Cecidium nov. Fig. 2. 2. On intervenal areas o leaf o Amelanchier canadensis (L) Medic. (service berry); prosoplasma, sub-ovid, laterally flattened, the sides paralleling the secondary veins, extending from both sides o’ the lea2, long axis perpendicular to the blade, 2-3 mm. long, Wels--5ew Uited States Zoocecidia upper side rounded, yellow or red, lower side truncate with slitlike opening, yellowish, surface smooth; monothalamous, chamber in upper half of gall e.onneeted with slit-like opening by narrow, flattened canal, walls firm; locally abundant, I-Ioeking Co., Ohio, Cedar Point, Ohio. Types in collection of author. Amorpha. Cecidomyia sp. Ceeidium nov. Fig. 3. 3. On Amorpha canescens Pursh, leaf raehis, leaflet either side or flower stalks; prosoplasma, up-walled type; cone-shaped with truncate ends, more or less curved, when on leaflet, base projects as a rounded prominence beyond the blade, zi-12, mm. long, larger when on leaf or floral axes, galls of leaflets exposed to light distinetly red in color, pubescence similar to that of normal plant; chamber shape eonf.orms to that of gall; fairly common, numerous on particular plants, Manhattan, Kan. Types in collection of writer. Cecidomyia sp. Cecidium nov. Fig. zt. 4. On Amorpha canescens Putsch, leaflet; kataplasma, edge-roll type; revolute leaf edge, yellow, 3-5 ram. long, pubescent like normal leaf; fairly common, Manhattan, Kan. Types in collection of writer. Albizzia. Cecidium nov. Coccid sp. Fig. 5, 5. On Albizzia ]ulibrissin Durazzini, stem surface; kataplasma; simple, circular elevations with depression in center cantaining coccid, 5.8 mm. dia, lighter in color than surrounding bark, the color of the new hyperplastic tissue which has become exposed; locally common, Raleigh, N. C. Types in collection of the writer. The above gall may be found on stems of widely varying age. It may be formed on trunks measuring 7-8 cm. dia. The figure is from a stem measuring 3 cm. in dia. and which is 7 years old. Azalea. Cecidium nov. Coccid sp. Fig. 6. 6. On Azalea nudifora (L) Torr., stem surface; kataplasma; simple diamond-shaped elevations with rounded corners with depression in center containing coccid, 1 cm. long, elevation abou [AprL 2 ram. above twig surface. Surface of raised portion coarsely striate due to splitting of original epidermis; abundant locally, Raleigh, N.C. Types in collection of the writer. Castanea. Cecidomyia sp. Cecidium nov. tig. 7. On Castanea pumila (L) Mill., leaf; prosoplasma, asymmetric up-walled type; arises from vein (under side) and cues in toward lea orming pocket, blade above gall pressed upward orming umbo as seen rom above, gall flattened parallel to blade, 4 ram. long, 2 .ram. wide, surface same as leaf or lighter; chamber ovoid, wall thick especially on vein side; abundant on certain trees, Carolin Beach, N. C. Types in collection of writer. This gall is of especial interest for the reason that it is a striking asymmetric variant of the up-walled type. It appears to be produced by an upgrowth rom the vein which instead o being equal on all sides of the larva is distinctly one-sided, resulting in the strongly curled or revolute structure observed. I know of no other gall like it in this respect; it constitutes a new fundamental gall type. A relatively ]rge itonidid larva was constantly present in the galls. Chenopodium. Cecidozoon undetermined. Cecidium nov. Fig. 8. 8. On Chenopolium ambrosiodes var. anthehninticum (L) Gray, stem gall; kataplasma; simple fusiform enlargement of the stem, 1-1.5 cm. long, color and texture same as stem, single chamber elongate, relatively large with irregularly pitted walls; not common, Toledo, O. Types in the collection of the writer. C,nila. Cecidomyia sp. (?) Cecidium nov. Fig. 9. 9. On Cunila orignooides (L) Britt. (Dittany), bud gall, on ends of aborted upper branches; pros.oplasma, up-walled type; subspherical, tipped with short point, 2-3.5 ram. dia., green at first early becoming bluish-purple, surface glandular same as leaves, sessile on branch end, invested below by an involucre of a few inconspicuous, foliaceous bracts; chamber large, same shape as gall, wall thin, similar to lea in texture though slightly thicker than leaf; ew on any one plant. Martin Co., Ind. Types in collection of writer. This gall was collected by Mr. Chas. C. Deam, to whom I am indebted for its study. Gledits;a. Cecidium nov. Fig. 10. Cecidomyia sp. 10. On Gleditsia triacanthos L., leaf rachis; kataplasma; simple elongate swelling o lea rachis, commonly the secondary axes., 5-10 ram. long, about 1 ram. dia., surface same as normal rachis; monothalamous, the chamber a mere capillary tube; not uncommon, Toledo, O. Types in collection of writer. Grindelia. Cecidium nov. Cecidomyia sp. Fig. 11. 11. On Grindelia lanceolata Nutt. (Rosin weed), a modification o the floral head; kataplasma, rosette type; a mass o overlapping involucral bracts (each external bract much thicker than n.ormal ones), the whole assuming an ovoid shape, 2.4-3.5 cm. long; single chamber at center surrounded by much reduced bracts, elongateovoid; one or few galls on single plant, infrequent; Fayetteville, Ark. Types in collection of writer. The characteristic salmon-covered larva o the Itonididm with breast-plate was ound in the galls. ’ig. 11, left, shows a normal head and a galled one; right, section of affected head. Grndela. Cecidium nov. Cecidomyia sp. Fig. 12. 12. On Grindelia squarrosa (1)ursh) Dunal, bud gall; kataplasma; sub-globose with attenuate tip or tips representing aborted lea elements, 5-8 ram. dia., green, very prominent in axils of normal leaves, 1-4 chambers, each elliptical in outline, walls thick of firm, fleshy texture; not common, Manhattan, Kan. Types in the collection o writer. 13. Hedeoma. Cecidomyia sp. (?) Cecidium nov. Fig. 13. On Hedeoma pulegioides (L) :Pets. (Pennyroyal), a simple [ApriI inflated calyx; kata.plasma, organoid type; calyx slightly inflated to sub-spherical form, 2 ram. dia., segments but slightly differentiated if at all, yellowish, normal hurlers undeveloped. Rather abundant on specimens o pennyroyal seen. Jeffersonville, Ind. 1-4 larvae present in galls. Collected by Mr. Chas. C. Deam. Fig. 13, upper, normal calyx; lower, affected calyx. Heterotheca. Ceeidium nov. Lcpidopteron. Fig. 14. 14. On Heterotheca sbaxillaris (Lain.) Britton nd- Rushy, stem gll; katplasma; simple fusfform enlargement of stem, 3.5-5 era. long, about 1 cm. wide, epidermis split into elongate diamond-shaped areas eoneolorous with stem, chamber relatively lrge, shape of gall. No uncommon, Arlington Texas. Types in collection o writer. Ilex. Cecidium nov. Cecidomyia sp. Fig. 15. 15. On Ilex vomitoria Air., leaf; kataplasma, leaf-fold type; a simple fold of leaf along midvein with accompanying thickening of part involved, commonly affecting the terminal leaves in which the largest part of the blade is involved, 3-5 ram. long, 2-3 ram. wide, surface same as normal leaf except color is lighter or where exposed to sun, red tinged; Carolina Beach, N. C. (Fort Fisher) occurring on shrubs exposed to ocean; rather common. Types in collection of writer. Lepidium. Cecidozo.on undetermined. Cecidium nov. Fig. 16. 16. On Lepidium virginicum L., stem or root surface; kataplasma; simple, sub-globular, sessile, at stem base or crown root. .5-1 ram..dia., yello, smooth; in" each gall yellow-ovoid egg was found (.2 x .15 ram.) enclosed by the homogenous, pithlike tissues of the gall; Arkansas. Types in collection of writer. The fact that this gall has developed in the presence .of the un.. hatched egg indicates the stimulus to have originated with th adult cecidozoon at the time of oviposition. I was unable to rear the adults and am unable to assign the gall to any group. I am indebted to Mr. M. R. Ensign or this material. Fig. 16, let, galls on stem base; right, included egg. Cecidomyia sp. 17. On Liatris punctata Hook., bud gall; kataplasma; subglobular, consisting of a mass of swollen and .used leaves, the en/=s of some o them projecting distally from the gall, 5-10 ram. dia., 3-5 elongate larval chambers; not common, Manhattan, Kan. Types in collection of writer. L,iatris. Cecidium nov. Fig. 17. Lobela. Cecidium nov. Cecidomyia sp. Fig. 18. 18. On Lobelia pube,rula Michx., stem swelling; kataplasma; simple rather inconspicuous enlargement of stem, varia.ble in length, he maximum being about 10 cm., ,idth varying rom 4:-5 ram.. srface same as normal stem except or presence o a ew longitudinal fissures in the epidermis exposing the cdrtical layer; internally the pith tissue contains a more or less broken, narrow cavity all tissues o the stem are a.bout equally involved in the hyperplasia. occupied by the larvae which are distrib.ted in a linear series; Not uncommon, Raleigh, C. Types in collection of the writer. I am indebted to Mr. I. V. Shunk or he original collection of his material. Parthenium. Cecidium n.ov. Fig. 19. Eriophyes sp. 19. On Parthenium integrifolium L.; lea-blade gall; kataplasma, diverticulum type with trichomes (erineum) extremely variable evaginations projecting either side o the lea, the smaller ones covered inernally and exteriorly with a heavy layer o omenturn made up o slender, twisted, multicellular trichomes, larger pouches often nearly smooth on exteri.or. Rather infrequent, West Raleigh, N.C. Types in author’s collection. Fig. 19, let, affected leaf; right, two trichomes. Persea. Cecidium nov. Aphid sp. Fig. 20. On Persea Borbon.ia (L) Spreng., lea; kataplasma leaf edge-roll type; rather definite local inrollings (upper side) of leaf edge, wall markedly thicker than ordinary lea-f, .orming definite cavity, galls variable in size, .4-2 cm. long, 3-10 ram. wide, surface smooth, oten glaucous, lighter in color than leaf when young, changing to red and finally black when old; abundant, Wrightsvill, lq. C. Types in author’s collection. Pinus. Cecidium nov. Eriophyessp. Fig. 21. 21. On Pinus echinata Mill., bud; kataplasma; rosette type; excessive proli-feration of stem buds, the leaves either remain massed in the bud condition or develop in a semi-aborted _fashion, orming a dense cluster or rosette; intermediate states are o course ound; not uncommon S. E. Ohio, North Carolina. Types in author’s collection. For the first observed material o this orm I am indebted to [r. J. S. tIouser of the Ohio Ex. Station. I have repeatedly collected it in North Carolina. In all collections the mites were demonstrated. Polygonum. Coleopteron sp. (?) Cecidium nov. Fig. 22. 22. On Polygonum aviculare L. (Bird’s Knot Weed), internodal swelling; ovoid enlargement of internode (sometimes involving two internodes), 8-13 ram. long, 3-7 ram. wide, green to reddish brown, surface more coarsely striate than normal stem; chamber large, same shape as gall, walls firm; few on plant; )/It. Vernon, Ind. Types in collection of writer. This gall was collected by Mr. Chas. C. Deam of Bluffton, Ind. Larvm taken -from the galls were tentatively determined as coleopterous by Professor Z. P. Metcalf of N. C. State College. It is to be hoped this inse.ct may soon be successfully reared, for, if it is coleopterous, it will be an interesting addition to the very limited group of gall-making beetles known in America. Polygonum. Cecidozoon undetermined. Cecidium nov. Fig. 23. 23. On Polygonum lapathifoium L., leaf edge-roll gall; kataplasma; variable in size and shape, often involving leaf to midrib, roll very tight, yellow in color, contrasting strongly with normal part of leaf. Common locally, Raleigh, N. C. Types in collection of writer. In the central region of these galls there constantly occurred a white larva without breast-plate. Whether or not these were merely secondary forms in a possible aphid gall was not determined. ue’cus. Cynips sp. (?) Cecidium nov. Fig. 24.. 24. On Ouercus Muhlenbergii Engelm., leaf; prosoplasma; broadly crescentic o banana-shaped, attached laterally and sessile on under side of leaf, tips attenuate, 2.5 ram. long, 1 ram. wide, smooth, light green, cavity large ovoid not extending into tips, collection o wrier. . wall thin; not common, Manhattan, Kan. One specimen, type ia Houard describes a similar gall ormed on toza of Europe by Trigonospis bru.necornis Tar. This form differs, however in bearing long, straggling hairs. Cynips sp. Cecidium nov. Fig. 25. 25. On Ouercus stellata Wang., terminal twig swelling; kataprosoplasma; roadly clavate to ovate, 1-2 cm. long, surface similar to normal twig, bu4-bearing, monothalamous with false chamber occurring distal to larval cell and opening exteriorly by constricted orifice, false chamber widest near proximal end, lined with thin layer of hard tissue, larval cell ovoid embedded in woody tissue which consitutes the bulk of the gall; not common, Arlington, Tex. Types in the collection of writer. Amphibolips sp. (?) Cecidium ov. Fig. 26. 26. On Ouercus marylandica Muench. at node (originates rom bud meristem); pr.osoplasma, radiate-fiber type; balloon-shaped, 1.5-2.25 cm., long axis, green at first, turning yellow when old, no spotted, smooth; larval chamber connected to peripheral zone by relatively ew coarse fibers, outer zone or wall very thick (2-3 ram.) and of pith-like consistency, not shrinking when old; fairly common, Arlington, Tex. Types in collection of writer. The above is comewhat similar to Amphibolips cooki Gillette. It differs in he absence of the red spots, has a thicker wall, is never distally nippled and does not shrivel upon drying. The galls remain on the trees for some time after the leaves have fallen and thus are readily observed in the winter. Cynips sp. Cecidium nov. Fig. 27. 27. On Quercus stellata Wang., leaf petiole; prosoplasma; clustered, appendicular; single galls broadly fusiform, angular below through mutual compression, distally round-conic, 4-7 ram. long, 3-5 ram. wide, reddish brown, puberulent; larval chamber in fall minute, .25 ram. dia., walls correspondingly thick, firm, fleshy, outer hal more deeply colored (tannin bearing) than inner half; not uncommon, Arlington, Tex. Types in collection o writer. These galls are most commonly found on the petiole bases of the terminal leaves, where they occur in such masses as to give a striking aspect to the branch end. They dehisce from the trees in late fall, the larva completing its development through the winter and spring. Rhus. Cecidium nov. Eriophyes sp. Fig. 28. 28. On Rhus canadensis Marsh, leaf; kata-prosoplasma, diverticulum type; irregularly rounded pocket gall, appendicular, under side, 4-6 ram. dia., green to red, on upper side marked by conic depression filled with trichomes chamber highly branched, opening into depression, trichomes not abundant within; not uncommon, Manhattan, tns. Types in writer’s collection. Felt1 mentions a "cylindric pouch gall" on R. trilobata (cazdensis) from Utah. I have collected this narrow, fusiform type in Kansas. It is sharply and constantly.different from the above. Felt, E. P. Key to Am. Insect Galls. N. State Mus. Bull. 200. 1918. Solanum. Cecidozoon undetermined. Cecidium nov. Fig. 29. 29. Oa Solanum nigrum (L.) bud gall; kataplasma, gall consists merely o two highly distorted leaves with their incurled edges tightly appressed, orming a large cavity within. The principal veins are not contorted, this condition being confined to the smaller veins and intervenal tissues which have through slight hyperplasia ad hypertrophy grown beyond the normal limits of the principal 1921] Fox--A New Form of Vanessa veins. Infrequent; Fayetteville, Ark. writer. This curious, primitive gall is evidently formed as follows: The larvse get into the apical region of the developing stem where they are able to interfere with the normal growth of two very young but definitely ormed leaves; the embryonic leaves associated with the apical growing point are suppressed and may be observed in the gall as a compact mass o tissue filling the space between the letioles of the leaves involved in the gall proper. One or two empty pupa cases .of the web type were found in the galls. Types in collection o Tibia. Cecidozoon undetermined. Cecidium nov. 30. On Tilia americana L., leaf; kataplasma; highly irregular wrinkle and distortion of leaf brought about through inhibition of growth of intervenal tissue; the veins become greatly looped and twisted; not common, Cedar Point, O. Types in the collection o writer. Within the olds of the distorted leaves were found numerous small white larvm which apparently were the cause of the galled condition; no evidence whatever of the previous presence of aphids was ound. The museum of the California Academy of Sciences contains an apparently undescribed variety of Vanessa virginiensis, which Mr. E. P. Van Duzee, the curator, has turned over to the writer fo description. Vanessa virginiensis var. hwashtee var. nov. Upper side. Expanse 43 ram. 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B. W. Wells. New United States Zoocecidia, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, DOI: 10.1155/1921/72796