On a Larva Boring the Leaf-Stalks of the Buckeye (Aesculus Glabra) in Ohio

Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Sep 2018

Edward Waller Claypole

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On a Larva Boring the Leaf-Stalks of the Buckeye (Aesculus Glabra) in Ohio

International Journal of PS YCHE. year (1881) Mr. Brabandt reared the larvae of Stau'opus fagi (called the crabcaterpillar on account of its shape) which larvae, as is well-known, always quarrel with each other and are fond of biting off each other's front-legs. Under such circumstances Mr. Brabandt obtained a larva which had lost one of its long forelegs in a cont,est but this appeared to disturb the insect little; and it continued feeding unconcernedly and pupated; and, on 5 June of this year the moth emerged, The moth showed only the single defect of not possessing the leg corresponding to the one which the larva had lost. - ON A LARVA BORING THE LEAF-STALKS OF THE BUCKEYE Several years ago soon after going to mischief. Wherever the hole in the stalk reside at Yellow Springs Ohio, I noticed was closed with droppings the caterpillar in the early part of May, that many of the was present but whenever the hole was leaves of the Ohio buckeye Ae.sculus gla- open the caterpillar was gone leading to bra drooped and withered very soon after the inference that.it had escaped through they had unfolded from the bud. For two the opening. or three years these drooping leaves caught After having made these preliminary my attention. On gathering them I uni- notes i attempted, in May 1878, to trace out formly found a small hole in the leaf-stalk the life-history of this insect but, being from which a tunnel, sometimes twelve very much pressed with work the experimillimetres in length, ran along the stalk, ment was a failure. The leaves were Above this hole the leaf was dying below it overlooked for a few days of warm weather, the stalk was still alive. In some few in- became mouldy and the caterpillars died. stances I fbund in the tunnel a small yellow- in 1879 I made a second attempt with ish caterpillar evidently the author of the rather better success but still without result of moment. The main difficulty lay in the were still feeding, but there were many fact that the early stage, during which dead ones. the insect could be found in the leaf-stalk, On 25 May I found the first chrysalis was of very short duration, and if, in the among the leaves. It was light red i, pressure of other occupations, I forgot to color, with eight rings on the abdomen. note the unfolding of the buckeye leaves, The rolled-up leaf was lined inside with or had not time to walk to the place where silk. These facts show nothing in any they grew, the chance for that. year was way peculiar, and the same description gone. The buckeye unfblds very sud- would apply to thousands of other chrysdenly and very quickly in the spring; alids. consequently there are but a few days A caterpillar, examined on 13 May 1881, during which the caterpillar can be found, was one centimetre long, semi-transparent, However, I have succeeded in obtaining yellowish in color with a yellow lead, and some every year since, and in the two this appearance was retained, except that years 1880 and 1881 I reared a few to the caterpillar became a little darker, until maturity, it went into the pupal state about 20 May. In the early part of May, usually about It was difficult to see what the caterpillars the second or third’, I found the drooping lived upon, as t.he fresh leaves that I put leaves of the buckeye in great numbers, with them were not attacked. I have I gathered, 8 May, a quantity of the leaves, noted this point for several years and have and, among them, a single specimen in come to the conclusion that the food of the which the caterpillar was in the main stem larva is the dead, dry leaf in which it is of the young shoot and not in the leaf-stalk rolled up. I have looked carefully on the the only instance of the knd that I have trees and can find no eaten or nibbled leaves met with. Taking.the specimens home I near those containing the caterpillars, so, placed thegn under a bell-glass in order to apparently, its habit is the same, in this determine the first point in doubt, the respect, both in captivity and in its native destination of the caterpillars after leaving habitat. the leaf-stalk: Two days afterwards on On 9 June, fifteen days after entering 10 May, I found that the leaf-stalks were the pupal, state the first moth emerged.. all empty and the caterpillars hidden in tile It vas small, with a peculiar hopping faded leaf at the top of the stem in which flight, the fore wing mottled black and they had previously burrowed. On 15 white, and the hind wing more uniform in May, five days later, the caterpillars were color, dusky, and slightly spotted with black still in the dead leaves, and X went to the near the tip. trees to try and find some more specimens, It appears as if the second stage in the but was unsuccessful. However, on 21 life of this insect is that in which it most May, I found a few rolled-up leaves con- frequently falls a prey to its foes. During taining caterpillars, brought them home its earliest existence it is sheltered in the and placed them with the others, tunnel it has bored in the stalk, and there On 23 May the surviving caterpillars seems no cause but the want of room to 366 PS YCHE. prevent its remaining there and burrowing trace it, yet other parts still remain to be down the whole length of the stem. But worked out. I have not been able to deterthese quarters soonbecome too small for it mine where and when the egg is laid, it leaves the tunnel by the hole at which it whether in early spring before the buds entered and betakes itself to the dead and open or later after the buds for the next curled leaf. Here it is easily found by year have been formed. In the former other insects, and from the difficulty of case the moth must be very long-lived, obtaining specimens in this stage, I infer lasting through the summer and then hiberthat a very large number are destroyed by hating until spring, or the species must be their enemies, double-brooded in this district. In tile In examining the chrysalids which I had latter case the eggs must remain on or in obtained, I noticed that two or three were the bud all winter until it unfolds in spring much larger than the rest, and I suspected which seems unlikely. Moreover, if the that, in collecting nibbled leaves from the egg is laid in the bud, the young caterpilbuckeye, I had introduced the larvae of lar must find its own way to the stalk of some different species. This suspicion was the leaf. On the whole it seems more cha.ged to certainty when the moths probable that the eggs are laid in spring emerged. Beside the genuine imago of the and upon the stem of the leaf into which buckeye stem-borer with which by this the larva can at oncebore. time, I was quite familiar I. had two or Specimens of the perfect insect were sent three specimens of double its size, with to Dr. C. V. Riley and were referred by cinnamon-colored wings having the costal him to Prof. C. H. Fernald. Though the edge in the form of a double curve. Not specimens were somewhat rubbed and the knowing the name of either species, I peculiar markings consequently faint, both pinned them for future examination. Most these entomologists inclined to refer them entomologists knowthe tedious and hopeless to Proteoteras aesculanum a new genus nature of the search through scattered pub- and species described by Dr, Riley in 1881 1 lications for the figure or description of though at first there was a suspicion some unknown insect but, casually looking that the insect was Sericoris instrutana over the report of’ the Entomological Soci- Clem., the larval state of which was not ety of Ontario for 1873, I found the larger then fully known. Specimens however, of the two species figured and described by raised during the present season from larMr. Saunders in an article on insects iniu- vae obtained in Ohio have thrown doubt rious to the raspberry (Rubus), and found on this identification but no specimen has that it was the banded raspberry leaf-roller, See Trans. Acad. Science St. Louis, v. 4. Loxotaenia (wrongly written Lozotaenia) See Proc. Amer. Assoc. Advanc. Sci., 1881. rosaceana, Harris. It follows, therefore, It is perhaps worthy of notice that, among that in Ohio this insect lives on the buckeye these few specimens (in 1882), a single Loxotaeas well as on the raspberry. ntihaatroaslatcehaonuag,hHatrhreibs,ucmkaedyee iitss acpopmemaorannlcye.plaAnltseod Though I have given the life-history of aytetmIyhparveesennetverressiedeenncae,siingnPeorfrythceoupnrteys,enPceenn.o,f this insect so far as I have been able to this insect upon it. PS YGHE. 367 been obtained sufficiently perfect to decide three days and lives in a rolled-up leaf. the question. Dr. Riley, however, informs 5. P. aesculanum bores the stem to a me that the study of a specimen bred, in depth of from 13 to 50 ram. The insect 1873, from the blossom of the buckeye, here alluded to seldom or never exceeds which specimen he finds specifically identi- 13 ram. in its boring. cal with mine, renders it certain that the I may add here a few words from a reinsect, is not Proteoteras aesculanum. cent letter from Dr. Riley. He writes Dr. Riley has very kindly allowed me to You are safe in changing the determisee his notes on, and figures of 10. aescu- nation of your species, for it certainly is lanum, which show several points in which not Sericoris instrutana, Clem. You are that species markedly differs from the spe- scualfanina sbauytinnegvtehrethsepleecsisesdiifsfecrleonste,tnooPt. oanelsycies which I reared. These points are as in structure and in some of’ the details fbllows :-- of its markings but more particularly in 1. The larva here described bores the having shorter and more acuminate frontleaf-stalk of the buckeye and only once wings. But it is impossible to characterize have I found a specimen in the terminal igteteiatbhseorlugteneelryipcearlfleycotrssppeecciifmiecnasl.ly" until you twig. P. aesculanum bores the terminal In conclusion I must express my indebttwig as well as the leaf-stalk. edness to Prof. Fernald and Dr. Riley for 2. P. aesculanum bores the terminal the trouble they have taken and the help twigs of maple (Acer dasycarpum). I have they have given me. It is only right, also, never seen a specimen of the insect here des- to add, as an excuse for the imperfect state cribed on a maple nor have I seen a maple of this paper, that the doubt, concerning twig or leaf showing indications of its pres- the identity of the insect did not arise unlil ence. the greater part of the paper was in type. 3. P. aesculanum often forms a swell This doubt cannot be removed until the ing or pseudogall on the stem. The species brood for 1883 is obtained. In the meanhere alluded to never forms a gall. while Prof. Fernald has referred the insect, 4. P. aesculanum lives in the gall ap- provisionally, to the genus Steganoptycha, patently through almost its whole larval Stephens (1834), under the name S. claystage. Theinseetheredeseribed, however, poleana. quits the leaf-stalk at the end of two or NOTES ON SPHINGIDAE. BY LAFAYETTE WASHINGTON GOODELL, AMHERST, MASS. Deileph;la l’ineata is the most common November. I have seen the half-grown of all the sphingidae here. I have never larvae crawling about on the ground as found the larvae on anything but purslane, late as 10 Nov., in search of their foodPortulaca oleracea, one of the worst of our plant which had been destroyed by early weeds, and on the cultivated species, P. frosts. It is not uncommon to see the grandiflora and on these they are found, moths on wing in midday, and often in the in all stages of growth, from June to full sunshine. The moths are particularly Peptides Advance s in ht p:/ w w.hindawi.com Virol og y Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Submit your manuscr ipts BioMed Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Research International Stem Cells International Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Zoology International Journal of Journal of Signal Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Transduction Genetics Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Anatomy Research International Research International Advances in Bioinformatics Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Enzyme Research International Journal of Journal of International Journal of Genomics Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Journal of Nucleic Acids The Scientiifc World Journal

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Edward Waller Claypole. On a Larva Boring the Leaf-Stalks of the Buckeye (Aesculus Glabra) in Ohio, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, DOI: 10.1155/1882/69672