Bulging Modes of Circular Bottom Plates in Rigid Cylindrical Containers Filled with a Liquid

Shock and Vibration, Sep 2018

In this article the free vibrations of the bottom plate of an otherwise rigid circular cylindrical tank filled with liquid are studied, considering only the bulging modes (when the amplitude of the plate displacement is predominant with respect to that of the free surface). The tank axis is vertical, thus the free liquid surface is orthogonal to the tank axis. The liquid is assumed to be inviscid, and the contribution of the free surface waves to the dynamic pressure on the free liquid surface is neglected. Wet and dry mode shapes of the plate are assumed to be the same, so that the natural frequencies are obtained by using the nondimensionalized added virtual mass incremental (NA VMI) factors and the modal properties of dry plates. This simplifies computations compared to other existing theoretical approaches. NAVMI factors express the nondimensionalized ratio between the reference kinetic energy of the liquid and that of the plate and have the advantage that, due to their nondimensional form, they can be computed once and for all. Numerical results for simply supported and clamped bottom plates, as well as for supported plates with an elastic moment edge constraint are given. For more accurate results, and to exceed the limits of the assumed modes approach, the Rayleigh-Ritz method is applied and results are compared to those obtained by using the NAVMI factors and other existing methods in the literature.

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Bulging Modes of Circular Bottom Plates in Rigid Cylindrical Containers Filled with a Liquid

Shock and Vibration, Vol. Bulging Modes of Circular Bottom Plates in Rigid Cylindrical Containers Filled with a Liquid 0 the liquid. The sloshing modes of circular cylindri­ 1 Department of Mechanics University of Ancona Ancona 60131 , Italy In this article the free vibrations ofthe bottom plate ofan otherwise rigid circular cylindrical tank filled with liquid are studied, considering only the bulging modes (when the amplitude of the plate displacement is predominant with respect to that of the free surface). The tank axis is vertical, thus the free liquid surface is orthogonal to the tank axis. The liquid is assumed to be inviscid, and the contribution of the free surface waves to the dynamic pressure on the free liquid surface is neglected. Wet and dry mode shapes of the plate are assumed to be the same, so that the natural frequencies are obtained by using the nondimensionalized added virtual mass incremental (NA VMI) factors and the modal properties ofdry plates. This simplifies computations compared to other existing theoretical approaches. NAVMI factors express the nondimensionalized ratio between the reference kinetic energy of the liquid and that of the plate and have the advantage that, due to their nondimensional form, they can be computed once and for all. Numerical results for simply supported and clamped bottom plates, as well as for supported plates with an elastic moment edge constraint are given. For more accurate results, and to exceed the limits of the assumed modes approach, the Rayleigh-Ritz method is applied and results are compared to those obtained by using the NAVMI factors and other existing methods in the literature. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - INTRODUCTION The study ofthe free vibrations of circular cylindri­ cal tanks has interested many researchers; this is obviously due to the wide application of tanks in mechanical, aeronautical, and civil engineering. Cylindrical tanks are often composed of a shell and a circular bottom plate. Many studies investigated vibrations of the shell and the bottom plate of these containers, and some are reported here. The liquid-filled tanks have two families of modes: the sloshing and the bulging ones. Sloshing modes are mann and Chang (1968), Bauer and Siekmann (1969) , and Capodanno (1989) ; other references are given in Abramson (1966) . Both sloshing and bulging axisymmetric modes of the bottom plates were experimentally and theoretically studied by Chiba, who also investigated the effect of the static deflection due to the fluid weight (Chiba, 1992, 1993) and the effect of a Winkler foundation (Chiba, 1994) on the bottom plate vibrations. Nagaia and Takeuchi (1984) studied plates of arbi­ trary shape in contact with a viscous fluid, and Nagaia and Nagai (1986) studied circular bottom plates on Winkler foundations in containers filled with viscous fluid. Nonlinear sloshing was studied by Bauer et al. (1971) , and nonlinear sloshing and bulging modes of the bottom circular plate were experimentally investigated by Chiba (1992). A circular plate as the surface cover of a rigid circular cylindrical tank was studied by Bauer (1995) . Regarding the shell vibrations, due to the great amount of literature, we only remember some works of Berry and Reissner (1958) , Lindholm et al. (1962) , Baron and Skalak (1962) , and Kondo (1981) , and that of Haroun and Housner (1981) on the earthquake response of storage tanks. Bauer and Siekmann (1971) and Bauer et al. (1972) studied the sloshing modes of circular cylin­ drical containers with both flexible bottom plates and flexible shells. It is worth mentioning that the first modem day studies on the vibrations of circular plates in contact with fluids can be attributed to Rayleigh (1877) and Lamb (1921) . However, they were in­ terested in plates vibrating in a circular aperture of an infinite rigid wall, so that the fluid was unlim­ ited; this is a different problem from that given by a cylindrical tank. This is also the case in the works of Kwak (1991) , Kwak and Kim (1991) , Ginsberg and Chu (1992) , and Amabili et al. (1995a,b). In this article attention is focused on the bulging modes of the flexible bottom plate of an otherwise rigid circular cylindrical container with a vertical axis and filled with liquid, so that the free surface of the liquid is orthogonal to the tank axis. The volume occupied by the liquid is cylindrical and the liquid velocity potential can be obtained by using the variable separation. This technique was used in the quoted studies to find the velocity potential of the inviscid liquid for sloshing and bUlging modes. All these studies which include the effect of the free surface waves of the fluid and, in some cases, also the effect of the superficial tension of the liquid (Bauer and Siekmann, 1971) or the in-plane stress of the plate (Chiba, 1993), give quite complex solutions that must be numeri­ cally solved for each specific case; therefore, few numerical results are available, especially for bulg­ ing and asymmetric modes. On the contrary, in this work the effects of the free surface waves on the dynamic pressure at the free surface, the superficial tension, and the hydrostatic pressure are neglected (Morand and Ohayon, 1992) , so that the plate vibrations, only considering bulging modes, are studied by using a simplified theory. As a consequence, the nondimensionalized added virtual mass incremental (NAVMI) factor ap­ proach, already successfully used for circular plates by Kwak and Kim (1991) , Kwak (1991) , Amabili et al. (1995a,b), and Amabili and Dalpiaz (1995) , is applied so that all numerical computa­ tions can be made nondimensional and the natural frequencies of the plate in contact with the liquid can be obtained directly from those in a vacuum, considering the same plate boundary condition. This is a computational simplification with respect to other existing theoretical approaches; more­ over, due to their nondimensional form, NAVMI factors can be computed once and for all. The proposed approach is based on the Rayleigh quo­ tient for coupled vibrations (Zhu, 1994) and on the hypothesis that the dry (in vacuum) and wet (in liquid) mode shapes of the plate are unchanged (assumed modes approach); the accuracy of this approach is checked by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method (Zhu, 1995) that removes the restrictive hypothesis on the wet mode shapes. In particular, the wet mode shapes are developed in a series by using the dry mode shapes as admissible functions. The Rayleigh-Ritz approach allows us to ex­ ceed the limits of the assumed modes approach, but it retains a remarkable simplicity of computa­ tion, with respect to other analytical techniques already applied to this problem. Moreover, nondi­ mensional results are very useful for engineering applications. It is also shown that the results of the Rayleigh-Ritz method match very well with numerical data available in the literature (Chiba, 1993) for bulging modes, obtained by using more complex theories, and thus proving that the very simple NAVMI factor approach is accurate enough for many engineering applications. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A thin circular plate having the thickness, h, and the mass density, {)p, vibrating in a vacuum, is con­ sidered. The plate material is assumed to be linearly elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic; the ef­ fects of shear deformation, rotary inertia, and damping are neglected. The equation of motion for the transverse displacement, w, of the plate is governed by (Leissa, 1969) where D = Eh3/[12(1 - zl)] is the flexural rigidity of the plate and 1) and E are Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus, respectively. In addition, is the Laplace operator in the polar coordinates r and e. The solution of Eq. (1) is obtained by using the variable separation. In the case where bound­ ary conditions at the edge are uniform, the solution takes the following form (Leissa, 1969) : w(r, e, t) = L L WmnCr) cos(me)f(t), m~O n~O where f(t) = eiwt, in which m and n represent the number of nodal diameters and circles; Amn and emn are the mode shape constants, whose ratio is determined by the boundary conditions; Jmand 1m are the Bessel func­ tion and the modified Bessel function of the first kind; Amn is the frequency parameter, which is also determined by the boundary conditions; a is the plate's radius; and i is the imaginary unit. The frequency parameter Amn is related to the circular frequency w of the plate by The values of the modal parameters Amn , A mn , and Cnm are given by Leissa (1969) for clamped circular plates, by Leissa and Narita (1980) for simply sup­ ported circular plates, and by Amabili and col­ leagues (1995b) for free-edge circular plates; Amn for circular plates with elastic edge supports are computed in Azimi (1988) ; and the mode shape (1) (3) (5) (6) constants can be obtained by using the bound­ ary conditions. The Rayleigh quotient for coupled vibrations (Zhu, 1994) is used to evaluate natural frequencies of the plate in contact with the liquid. The original idea is attributed to Rayleigh (1877) and Lamb (1921) . Hence, we may write the following for each case: where V p is the maximum potential energy of the plate and Tt and Tt are the reference kinetic energies of the plate and the liquid, respectively. Based on the hypothesis that the wet mode shapes are equal to the dry mode shapes, natural frequen­ cies of free vibration in a liquid, A, can be related to natural frequencies in a vacuum, fv. Thus, the following formula is obtained: where gmn is the added virtual mass incremental (AVMI) factor. This factor is given by the ratio between the reference kinetic energy of the liquid, whose movement is induced by the vibration of the structure, and that of the plate gmn = Tt = f mn -PL-ha , Tt Pr where fmn is the NAVMI factor and PL is the mass density of the liquid. NAVMI FACTORS A circular plate is considered to be the flexible bottom of a rigid circular cylindrical tank filled with an incompressible and inviscid liquid (see Fig. 1); the liquid movement, considered as only caused by the plate vibration, is assumed to be irrotational. Then, the liquid movement associated with each mode shape can be described by the spatial velocity potential, c[>mn, that satisfies the Laplace equation The spatial velocity potential can be written as V2 c[>mn = O. <l>mll = 1>mll(r, z)cos(me), (8) (9) (10) Rigid shell ~ Liquid H l' Elastic plate J I '( a >I The free liquid surface condition is described by the zero dynamic pressure condition at z = H (Morand and Ohayon, 1992; Zhu, 1994, 1995) , where H is the level of the liquid in the container. This boundary condition is obtained neglecting the contribution of the free surface waves and superficial tension to the dynamic pressure of the liquid at z = H. This simplification does not give significant errors for tanks when only bulging modes are studied, as is shown in the discussion and comparison of numerical results. Studying the shell vibrations, Kondo (1981) discussed this phe­ nomenon observing that wave heights of the free surface for bulging modes of circular cylindrical tanks are so small that they almost coincide with the undisturbed liquid level. The introduced sim­ plification is the same obtained considering zero gravity (without superficial tension) and does not constrain the vertical velocity of the liquid. As a consequence of the hypotheses, the free surface (13) does not exhibit an intrinsic capability to oscillate; thus, the liquid free surface is not subjected to a restoring force once it has moved, and sloshing modes cannot be studied. The condition of impermeable walls at the liquid-rigid tank interface for a noncaviting liq­ uid is ( -acf>mn) ar r=a =0 ' and the liquid-flexible plate interface is The solution of Eq. (12) with the condition given by Eq. (13) is, for axisymmetric modes (m = 0), cPon(r, z) = Kono(z - H) + i KOnkJO (BOk!..) k=l a (14) (15) (16) 1 z) sinh (cmk~) . [cosh (Cmk- , (17) a tanh ( Cmk ~) where where Kmnk are constants. Equations (16) and (17) can be obtained by those of Bauer and Siekmann (1971) considering g = (J = 0; these equations must satisfy all the boundary conditions. Equations (16) and (17) satisfy the boundary condition (14) if Cmk are solutions of the following equation where J ~, is the derivative of the Bessel function in respect to its argument. The constants Kmnk are calculated in order to satisfy Eq. (15). For asym­ metric modes we have Recalling the orthogonality condition of the Bessel function (Spiegel, 1974) , we have where Okn is the Kronecker delta and (Xmk is given by Moreover, we have (Wheelon, 1968) where and for asymmetric (m #- 0) modes is We also introduce the (Wheelon, 1968) following integral (18) (19) (21) If we multiply Eq. (19) by (l/a 2) Jm[cmk(r/a)]r and then we integrate, this yields Therefore, the constants Kmnk are given by If one applies the Green's theorem to the har­ monic function <Pmn , the reference kinetic energy of the liquid can be computed as a boundary inte­ gral (Lamb, 1945; Amabili, 1995) : where V is the liquid volume, aV is the boundary of the volume V, and s is the direction normal to the boundary oriented inward to the liquid region. Due to Eqs. (13) and (14), only the integration over the plate surface gives a nonzero result; there­ fore, the reference kinetic energy of the liquid is given by (27) (28) 4Jrnn(r, 0)cos2(mO)r dr dO ( -a4Jrnn ) az z=O 1 '" = -2PLa3"'mL k=O = ~ PLa2"'rn I: WrnnCap )4Jmn(ap, O)p dp For axisymmetric modes (m = 0), the spatial veloc­ ity potential of the liquid is described by Eq. (16); for these modes, the boundary condition at the liquid-plate interface, Eq. (15), is satisfied if (29) ~ ( r ) -Kono + LJ KonkJo SOkk=! a SO(k )H a' tanh SOk­ a (34) The constant Kono is given by where "'rn = 27T for m = 0 and 7T for m > 0, and Tt depends on m and n. The reference kinetic energy of the plate is given by Tt = -12 pph fa f21T W~(r)cos2(mO)r drdO o 0 -_14"'mPPha20pmn ' where OPmn = A;n [J;'2(Arnn) + (1 - ~~) J;(Amn) ] - C;n [I;'2(Amn ) - (1 + ~J I; (Amn) ] and J;' and I;' are the derivatives of corresponding Bessel functions in respect to their arguments. Then, by using Eq. (9), the AVMI factor is given by (31) (32) and the NAVMI factor is = -TOn, (30) where (Wheelon, 1968) The constants KOnk' for k > 0, are obtained by Eq. (27) computed for m = 0; therefore, for axi­ symmetric modes, the reference kinetic energy of the liquid is and the NAVMI factor is given by r - 2 [2H 2 On - Opmn -;; TOn NUMERICAL RESULTS NAVMI factors are computed for circular plates with different boundary conditions by using Eqs. (33) and (38) and the software Mathematica (Wolfram, 1991) . Data for simply supported plates is listed in Table 1 for m :S 4, n :S 3 and for different liquid depth ratios H/a. NAVMI factors (36) (37) (38) increase with the ratio H/a and decrease with m and n. In particular, the fundamental mode (m = oand n = 0) presents a high value of the NAVMI factor for H/a ?: 1, due to the movement of the liquid center of mass during vibrations; on the contrary, no change of the center of mass height is verified for mode shapes having m > O. The limit NAVMI factors, when H/a goes to infinity, are given for asymmetric modes. These limit val­ ues cannot be obtained for axisymmetric modes by using the assumed modes approach but can be obtained by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. A similar behavior is shown in Table 2, where the data for clamped plates is reported; however, the factor for the fundamental mode is lower in this case in respect to simply supported plates. NAVMI fac­ tors for axisymmetric modes are also plotted in Fig. 2. The case of supported plates with a constant elastic moment constraint at the edge is studied for different torsional distributed stiffness K t [moment/unit length] values; this constraint simu­ lates well the plate boundary condition when this plate is welded to a circular cylindrical shell. Resuits are reported in Tables 3 and 4 for axisymme­ tric and asymmetric modes, respectively, and were obtained by using the modal parameters given in Azimi (1988) . The full range 0 (simply supported plate) + 00 (clamped plate) of the stiffness K t was studied. IMPROVED SOLUTION: RAYLEIGH-RITZ METHOD The Rayleigh-Ritz method (Meirovitch, 1986) is applied to eliminate the restrictive hypothesis that dry and wet modes have the same shape. All the other hypotheses, previously introduced, are re­ tained. The wet mode shapes W, by using the un­ known parameters qn and the admissible functions Wmn , can be described by 00 W(r, 0) = cos(mO) 2: qnWmn(r), n=O (39) where Wmn is given by Eq. (4). To simplify the m = 1 functions; in fact, dry mode shapes are quite simi­ lar to wet mode shapes. The trial functions Wmn are linearly independent and constitute a com­ plete set. The spatial distribution of the velocity potential of the liquid, <P, calculated at the liquid-plate in­ terface (z = 0), is given by where <P(r, e,O) = ¢(r,O)cos(me), 00 ¢(r, 0) = L qn¢mn(r, 0). 11=0 (42) (43) Using the principle of superposition, considering that the plate deflection is given by the sum of Eq. (39), and Eq. (43), the function ¢ at the liquid­ plate interface is given by the following sum: computations, the mode shape constants, Amn and emn , are normalized to have The result of quadrature of Eq. (40) is [see Wheelon eqs. 11.106, 33.10, and 31.101 (1968)] In Eq. (39) the eigenfunctions of the plate vibrat­ ing in a vacuum are assumed to be admissible 00 00 ¢(ap, O) = L qn L KmllkJm(SmkP)' n~O k~O (44) 0.7 r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , 0.6 ~ I:~::I 1-:-n =2\ --.-n =3 o ~----~----~-----~----~ o 0.5 1.5 2 H/a The reference kinetic energy of the liquid is given by expression for the reference kinetic energy of the liquid for asymmetric modes is obtained: Tt = - -12 PL f2u fa (a<p) a a az Fa <P(r, 0) r dr d8. (45) + Cm/Ymjk). (46) Using the boundary condition at the liquid-plate interface (a<plaz)z=a = - W(r, 8), the following The reference kinetic energy of the liquid for axi­ symmetric modes (m = 0) is then given by Tt = 21PLa2l/Jrn00~ ~00 qnqj [ 2H'Ton'TOj + ~ KOnk(Aoj/3 ojk + CO/YOjk) ]. The reference kinetic energy of the plate, using the normalization introduced in Eq. (40) and the orthogonality of the dry mode shapes, is given by The maximum potential energy of the system, con­ sidering an incompressible liquid, coincides with that of the plate and can be computed as a sum of the reference kinetic energies of the dry eigen­ functions, To perform numerical computations for each fixed m value, only a finite number N of terms must be considered in all the previous sums. To this purpose, the vector q of the unknown parameters is introduced q = ( 1 . qqol q~-l To make the formulas more compact, the follow­ ing constant is also given: The NAVMI matrix describes the inertial effect of the liquid on the modes. Therefore, this is the extension of the NAVMI factor to the Rayleigh­ Ritz approach. Moreover, the NAVMI factors are the diagonal elements of the NAVMI matrix. Similar to Eq. (52), the reference kinetic energy of the plate is obtained , 1 TT T p = 2: apphq- .q, where I is the N X N identity matrix. Then, the maximum potential energy of the plate takes the following expression: where P is the N X N diagonal matrix given by 5 15 20 and Oij is the Kronecker delta. In order to find natural frequencies and wet mode shapes of the plate vibrating in contact with the liquid, the Ray­ leigh quotient for coupled vibration in an inviscid and incompressible liquid (Zhu, 1994) is used. Minimizing the Rayleigh quotient with respect to the unknown parameters qn, one gets ~ Pq - A2(pphl + PLaMdq = 0, a (58) where A is the circular frequency of the wet plate. Equation (58) is a Galerkin equation and gives an eigenvalue problem. It would be convenient to introduce the following nondimensional constants: fP=A2aD-4pPh , nand JL are called the wet frequency parameter and the density-thickness correction factor, re­ spectively. Then, Eq. (58) can be written in the following nondimensional form: Pq - fP(1 + JLMdq = O. (61) It is interesting to see that, if the NAVMI matrix ML is diagonal, the system ofEq. (61) is uncoupled; in this case, the approximate solutions given in the previous section become exact. DISCUSSION AND COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL RESULTS The numerical solution to the Galerkin equation, Eq. (61), is obtained by using the Mathematica (55) (56) (57) (59) (60) 0 n=1 n-Q 10 Jl FIGURE 3 The wet frequency parameters n for axi­ symmetric modes (m = 0) of clamped plates having a ratio H/a = 0.5, as a function of the density-thickness correction factor JL. Curves relative to the first three axisymmetric modes. (Wolfram, 1991) computer program. The compu­ tation of the NAVMI matrix ML is performed by using Eq. (53) for asymmetric modes and Eq. (54) for axisymmetric modes. Due to the nondimensional form of these equations and the number of nodal diameters m once fixed, ML depends only on the plate boundary conditions at the edge, on the ratio Hla, and on the Poisson ratio v; clamped plates are independent from v. The numerical results for three different cases are reported here; these results are also used as a testing bench for the assumed modes approach. The NAVMI matrix for axisymmetric modes (m = 0) of clamped plates having a ratio Hla = 0.5 is o~==========~~====~ -0.5 -1 dP 0.38260 -0.072123 -0.072123 The NAVMI matrix for axisymmetric modes (m = 0) of clamped plates having a ratio H/a = 2 is The NAVMI matrix for modes with a nodal diameter (m = 1) of clamped plates having a ratio H/a = 2 is Six terms in the series expansion of mode shapes are used in the cases presented; this choice allows a good evaluation of the first three eigenvalues (Meirovitch, 1986) . Observing Eqs. (62)-(64), one can find that the NAVMI factors previously com­ puted are the diagonal elements of the NAVMI matrices. Moreover, the off-diagonal elements can be positive or negative, but generally have a smaller absolute value than the diagonal elements; exceptions are obtained in Eq. (63), where the axisymmetric modes of a clamped plate having a ratio H/a = 2 are considered. It is clear that the matrix in Eq. (62), relative to clamped circular plates with a ratio H/a = 0.5, is more diagonal than the others reported in Eqs. (63) and (64). In fact, an increment of the off-diagonal elements with the ratio H/a can be observed; on the contrary, the importance of the off-diagonal elements decrease with m, as verified comparing Eqs. (63) and (64). Figure 3 shows the wet frequency parameters n for axisymmetric modes (m = 0) of clamped plates for H/a = 0.5 as function of the density­ thickness correction factor fL. Curves relative to the first three axisymmetric modes are given. The circular frequency of this plate is obtained by using Eq. (59) and Fig. 3. The percentage errors that one commits by using the NAVMI factor solution, instead of the Rayleigh-Ritz solution, is plotted in Fig. 4 for this plate as function of fL. It is very interesting to note that the fundamental mode is accurately estimated by the NAVMI factor solu­ tion and that the error increases with the number of nodal circles and with fL. In Figs. 5 and 6 the (62) (63) (64) '--­ n=O o~================~ o 5 10 15 20 FIGURE 5 The wet frequency parameters n for axi­ symmetric modes (m = 0) of clamped plates having a ratio H/a = 2, as a function of the density-thickness correction factor /L. Curves relative to the first three axisymmetric modes. wet frequency parameters n and the percentage errors are given for axisymmetric modes (m = 0) of clamped plates for Hla = 2. These figures are given in order to understand the changes due to the different ratio of Hla; it is clearly an increment of the percentage errors that are maximum for modes having one nodal circle (n = 1). In Figs. 7 and 8 the wet frequency parameters n and the percentage errors are plotted for modes with one nodal diameter (m = 1) of clamped plates with a ratio Hla = 2. It is interesting to observe that the frequency error for all modes and for all the J1, values are lower in this case with respect to the one shown in Fig. 6; therefore, as well as the off­ diagonal elements becoming less important for 0 -5 -10 H 0 H H -15 [il 0 -1 -5 10 J.l 0 5 15 20 0 5 15 20 FIGURE 8 The percentage errors of the NAVMI fac­ tor solution in respect to the Rayleigh-Ritz results as a function of /L for clamped plates. Modes with a nodal diameter (m = 1) and H/a = 2. o 5 O~___-_-~--_-_-_~_~~~_-_-_-_-~--_-_-_-_-~ 15 20 FIGURE 7 The wet frequency parameters n for modes with a nodal diameter (m = 1) of clamped plates having a ratio H/a = 2, as a function of the density­ thickness correction factor 11-. Curves relative to the first three modes. modes having nodal diameters, the percentage er­ rors decrease with m. The wet mode shapes are investigated by using Eq. (61); data relative to the three is reported. In Fig. 9 the dry and wet mode shapes are plotted along a radius for axisymmetric modes of clamped plates with Hla = 0.5 and J1, = 10. Modes with up to two nodal circles are considered. It is clear that, as for the natural frequency, the mode shape of the fundamental mode (m = 0; n = 0) shows little change. Similar results are given in Fig. 10 for axisymmetric modes of clamped plates with Hla = 2 and J1, = 10 and in Fig. 11 for modes with one nodal diameter of clamped plates with Hla = 2 and J1, = lO. The results of the NAVMI factor approach n=O 10 .\.l >=: ~ 0.8 Ql o cO 0.6 rl U0.l. 0.4 •.-1 '0 '0 0.2 Ql .~ rl ~ -0.2 So-! ~ -0.4 O~--------~.---~.-----~~--------~~~~ o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 o~--------~--~~~----~~---------=~~ o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 and Rayleigh-Ritz methods are compared to those given by Chiba (1993) for bulging modes of a clamped circular bottom plate, where both the effects of the free surface waves on the dynamic pressure and the in-plane stress of the plate are considered. Results of Chiba (1993) are dimensional and refer to a steel plate having radius a = 0.144 m, thickness h = 0.002 m, Young's modulus E = 206 Gpa, Poisson ratio v = 0.25, mass density pp = 7850 kg m-3 in contact with water, having PL = 1000 kg m-3• In Fig. 12 the natural frequencies (Hz) of the first three axisymmetric modes of the plate inves­ tigated by Chiba (1993) are compared to the results obtained by using both the simple NAVMI factor approach and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. It is clear that the results of the Rayleigh-Ritz method always match very well with Chiba's results (see Fig. 12), confirming that the applied free surface condition (zero dynamic pressure at Z = H) is correct when one is studying bulging modes. Moreover, the simple NAVMI factor approach gives quite good results, especially for the fundamental mode and for small values of r r FIGURE 10 Comparison of (---) dry and (-) wet modes for clamped plates; axisymmetric modes (m = 0) and H/a = 2. O~--------~--~\-~t-------~I o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 the ratio H/a; in fact, it was previously found that, when the ratio H/a increases, the accuracy of the NAVMI factor approach decreases. CONCLUSIONS The proposed approach to the problem has the advantage that the natural frequencies are quickly obtained by using the NAVMI factors and the modal properties of dry plates. The NAVMI fac­ tors are listed for application to engineering and design; to this end, some common constraints at the plate edge are studied. In spite of the computa­ tional simplicity, the present approach gives good results, especially for the fundamental mode (m = 0 and n = 0) or modes without nodal circles (n = 0), and for values ofthe ratio H/a ~ 1; with.in the aforestated range, mode shapes havmg no CIr­ cular nodes present nearly equal wet and dry mode shapes, so that the assumed mode approach gives nearly exact natural frequencies. When more accurate results are necessary, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, which retains a relative computation simplicity and gives nondimensio?al results, can be used. This method for bulgmg modes gives results nearly equal with those ob­ tained by using more complex theories. NOMENCLATURE plate radius mode shape constants r D E Iv A h H m n r t Tt T: Vp () <Pmn N' :.1...:. >(,,) c: Q) ::I 0e .... ~ ::I 1000 1iS z . H/a FIGURE 12 Comparison of natural frequencies obtained by using different theories as a function of the ratio H/a. (D) NAVMI factors approach; (e) Rayleigh-Ritz method; (-) results of Chiba (1993) . circular frequency of the plate (rad/s) frequency parameter of the wet plate Laplace operator = V2~72, iterated Laplace operator Journal of Engineering Volume 2014 Volume 2014 Sensors Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Active and Advances in Civil Engineering Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Journal of Robotics Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Advances OptoEle Submit your manuscr ipts VLSI Design Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Hindawi Publishing Corporation Navigation and Observation Engineering International Journal of and Engineering Electrical and Computer International Journal of Aerospace Engineering Abramson , H. 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Marco Amabili. Bulging Modes of Circular Bottom Plates in Rigid Cylindrical Containers Filled with a Liquid, Shock and Vibration, DOI: 10.3233/SAV-1997-4105